Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management Introduction Management There are several meanings and definitions for management. • Management is getting things done through others. • Management entails judgment and decision in determining plans and development of procedures to assist control of performance and progress against goals. • Management is a process by which limited resources are combined to achieve given ends. Management is a social process whereby a suitable environment is created for efforts to be organized to accomplish desired goals. • A recommended definition: “management entails (1) judgment and decision in determining plans and the development of procedures to assist control of performance and progress against goals; (2) the guidance, integration and motivation of personnel running the operations. The word management has also the meaning of “people carrying out the activities of managing.” Management is essential in all organized cooperation; it is the function not only of the corporation president and the army general, but also of the shop supervisor andthe company president. A person in a managerial role may be a sales person, engineer, or financier; but the fact remains that all are managers, who obtain results by establishing an environment for effective group endeavor, undertake the same functions. It is known that, business enterprises management depends on profit as a main goal, and how to realize these profits in an economic way: profit is only a measure of the surplus of business income over costs. In non-profit organizations, management of effort and directing them to achieve goals is also required. Whether in profit or nonprofit organizations, the goal of managers is the same at every level. Of course, the activity of managing is carried out by people, who should know their business and possess certain knowledge essential for doing that business. Is managing a science or an art? Science & art are complementary. Science explains phenomena. It is based on belief and rationality of the universe and nature. There is more or less constant relationships between events. Knowledge related to events has been discovered and systematized to predict future or unknown events. In science, input generally has predicted outputs. Thus we speak of a science of mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, etc. In science, there are admitted hypotheses to explain nature and relationship between events. In the scientific prediction of consequences of acts, there is a little room for judgment. Art is making use of organized knowledge (can be science) and applies it in the light of realities to gain a desired practical result. The most productive art is always based on an understanding of the science underlying it. The essence of managerial art is the ability to compromise with the least amount of undesired consequences. Contrary to science, results are not guaranteed when one tries to force a theory in an environment it was not designed to explain. Results are not guaranteed when theories fail to fully explain events and their relationships, or when there opinions and judgments and results that depend on the human input. For the same concrete object there are different evaluations that vary between extremes. It is often pointed out that the social sciences are "inexact" sciences, as compared with the "exact" physical sciences. Other examples of inexact sciences are medicine, music, ... etc. Most of these are related to human beings and their behaviors. Behaviors of solids and liquids are scientific. It is also sometimes Indicated that management is perhaps the most inexact of the social sciences. The social sciences and management in particular, deal with complex phenomena about which too little is known. Although the organization of human beings for the attainment of common objectives is ages old, a science of management is just developing. Since World War II, there has been an increasing awareness that the quality of managing is important to modern life, and this has resulted in extensive analysis and study of the management process, its environment, and its techniques. Analysis of business failures has shown that a very high percentage of these failures have been due to unqualified or inexperienced management. For example more than 90% of business failures are due to managerial incompetence and experience." Managers work for and/or within organizations which are arrangements or frames of work of the management process. In these organizations, rapport and responsibilities are derived from global business objectives of the enterprise. Managers, Administrators and Supervisors Administration is the part of management process concerned with the institution and carrying out of procedures by which the program is laid down and communicated, and measuring how the progress of activities is regulated against budgets and plans. Management encompasses higher activities including planning, organizing and some other important functions that administrators usually do not do on a scale comparable to managers. The manager supervises administrators. The basic difference between the manager and the supervisor is the difference in scope and the size of the job. The supervisor usually manages a group of persons who report to him and in this way; the supervisor is the local manager of his area. Frederick Taylor (1856-1917): Fredrick Taylor started his career as an apprentice machinist in a workshop then rose to the position of chief engineer of the workshop after earning an engineering degree through evening study. Taylor is generally acknowledged as the father of scientific management. His famous work entitled The Principles of ScientificManagement. The principal concern in his life was that of increasing efficiency of production, not only to raise profit but to increase workers pay as well. His work has clearly defined and standardized tasks and introduced the concept of defining payment based on performance. He highlighted the importance of the selection, education and training of workers based on criteria related to work requirements. Healso highlighted the importance of cooperation between workers and managers to increase work output. Taylor’s fundamental principles underlying his approach to scientific management are summarized as follows: • Replacing rules of thumb by science • Obtaining harmony in group action rather than discord • Achieving cooperation of human beings rather than chaotic individualism • Working for maximum output rather than restricted output • Developing all workers to the maximum extent possible for the benefit of the company and the workers as well. Henrl Fayol (1841-1925): " father of modern operational management theory " Fayol Started his career in management, he was a white collar from the start. He found that activities of an industrial could be divided into: • Technical • Commercial • Financial • security • accounting • managerial In his dividing of activities, he assigned to management the role of ensuring that all work smoothly to achieve business objectives. The new function of management, introduced by Fayol, ties between all other functions to maximize results of work. Fayol listed 14 management principles which are based on his experience: 1. Division of work: specialization is of great importance in increasing efficiency of labor and laborers where jobs and missions do not interfere. 2. Authority goes with responsibility: authority and responsibility are relatedwhere the later is corollary of the former. 3. Introduce discipline: It is the respect of agreement concerning achievement of work and outward marks of respect he declares; this requires good supervisor at all levels. 4. Ensure unity of command: Employees must receive command from one supervisor only. 5. Ensure unity of direction: Each group of activities with the same objective must have one head and one plan. 6. Subordinate personal to general: They must be in a reconcilement state. 7. Pay fair remuneration: Pay must offer the maximum possible satisfaction to employees in view of total cost. 8. Centralize and delegate: The main objective must be centralized but with delegation in executing procedures. 9. Ensure scalar chain: There must be a chain of superiors from the highest to the lowest ranks but must not be detrimental to business. 10.Enforce order: there should be "a place for every one and everything in its place." 11.Pay attention to equity: Loyalty and devotion towards work arise from justice of managers in treating employees. 12.Ensure stability of tenure: Minimize turnover. Excessive turnover is bad for managerial performance. 13.Encourage initiative: Sacrifice management vanity in order to permit subordinates to exercise it. 14.Establish esprit de corps: The importance of team work, unity of command and direction: "in unity there is strength." Managers and their functions While exercising their functions, the managers do the following five basic tasks. These basic tasks are: - Planning: Defining and selecting goals, and finding and selecting ways to achieve them. - Organizing: Part of management that involves the establishment of roles in the enterprise. Organizing involves: • determining activities • grouping of activities • assigning authorities and responsibilities - .
Leading: It is to influence people to do their best with full enthusiasm towards the fulfillment and achievement of organization and group goals, the leading involves leadership and followership. Leadership must have the ability to deal with people and direct them. Followership seeks leadership who is fair and can offer them means of satisfaction.
- Controlling: Measuring, evaluating, and correcting activities of subordinates to assure that acts are conforming to plans. It measures performance against goals and plans. Controlling must correct deviation from approved plans.
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