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HIST 1301: Unit I Worksheet 1

HIST 1301: American History I Reflection Paper

Unit I Worksheet

Unit I Worksheet

1. Provide the following information about the article you selected:

Author: Frederick Houghton

Article Title: The Characteristics of Iroquoian Village Sites of Western New York

Journal Title: American Anthropologist

Volume Number: 18

Issue Number: 4

Publication Date: Oct-Dec 1916

Page Numbers: 508-520


Doi: edsjsr.660120

Provide the full APA reference for this article: Houghton, F. (1916). The Characteristics of Iroquoian Village Sites of Western New York. American Anthropologist, 18(4), new series, 508-520. Retrieved July 22, 2021, from

2. In essay format, write a summary of the article. Your summary should be insightful and provide a thorough analysis of the content presented. Make certain to identify (using APA guidelines), any paraphrased and directly quoted content from your article. First-person narrative (i.e., your personal opinion) is not permitted in this section.

The article is about the Iroquoian group which is among the three groups of India Camp in New York with the other two known as non-Iroquoian and wanderers from Southern Ohio. Few archaeologists have recognized the characteristics of each of the three groups and their differences which makes them a good study topic. Fredrick had done studies in the village of Seneca, Neuter, and other Iroquoian people and noticed the characteristic of the Iroquoian group and how they differed from the other groups. He also noticed a collection of artifacts in areas known to be where Algonkians stayed made by skilled collectors whose work was never published or was published in a way they cannot be associated with Algonkians.

From the study of Iroquoian sites, he noticed the sites were characterized by:

1. An elevated position with evidence of defensive works.

2. Refuse heaps and ash pits

3. Lots of notched, large, shouldered points, and grooved axes

4. Lots of clay fragmented or whole kettles and pipes

5. Lots of articles made from bones and antler

6. Lots of small, triangular, and chert points

He also noticed the sites lack:

1. Large, notched, shouldered points and grooved axes

2. Problematic articles made of slate, tubes, banner stones, and gorgets

3. Artifacts made of steatite, quartzite, or other materials from foreign territories.

The most outstanding feature for the Iroquoian sites was the black earth that marked its surface made from heaps of refuse of the village due to decayed animals, vegetation, a mix of ash from firewood and charcoal. The heaps were also refuse from the tools used during that era and helped indicate the economic activities of the people like the presence of fish hooks and their ways of life like triangular cherts, or trader's brass. Most of the findings were in Seneca making it characterized as the Iroquoian stock nation.

3. In essay format, write your reflection on the article. First personal narrative (i.e. your personal opinion) is permitted in this section. As you are constructing your reflection, address the following questions:

I found the topic interesting as it was about a certain culture or group of people from the past who might have led a different lifestyle than our current world.

What I found more interesting about the article is that the author introduced the three groups of the Indian Camp and later narrowed it to the Iroquoian group which was the main one in the campsite. The author also explained the artifacts found on the site made from clay and bones. It's interesting how they could make durable tools from clay and bones and use them for their economic life. The characteristics highlighted showed clearly what the Iroquoian group site was and how it differed from other sites and clearly showed the way of life of the Iroquoian people especially economic lifestyle.

I was surprised that a tool could be made from a bone and still be durable to do economic activities and even for defense. Also, most of the early communities settled along river banks and practiced agriculture from their settlement and nearness to water sources. However, it is surprising the Iroquoian group thought otherwise and chose higher areas that were helpful in their defense. Everyone could choose food first but they chose defense and security first.

The topic is important since there are people from the Indian communities who are now settled and become citizens of America but they have to know and understand their origin and how their ancestors led their lives. It is a good topic to help share the way the areas where the Iroquoian settled have changed in the current society. People might also learn from the challenges the group faced and how they overcome them hence becoming a sense of inspiration.

In the past, the group was concerned about their defense and security which is usually the idea of the current society where countries or communities are more concerned about their security and defense. People are now changing how they access food through farming and groceries rather than hunting and gathering as the people before. Also, the making of tools for economic activities is still there today although the materials have changed that is before people used clay and bones but currently, they are using steel, iron.

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