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1. – WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS AFFIRMATION: “Spirituality is personal”?


Spirituality is more that personal, thus limiting it to be a personal trait makes the affirmation wrong. According to Philip (2012), spirituality refers to the development of non-material element of life, spirituality includes a sense of connection to something bigger than ourselves, and it typically involves a search for meaning in life. Thus, spirituality extends beyond our personal life, and it involves others in the society by doing things that are considered holy.

2. – What are the different emphasis in religion and spirituality? How do they overlap?

Spirituality emphasizes on giving the individual autonomy over his or her interpretation of the soul or spirit, whereas religion implies participation in a communal practice and interpretation of divine belief and worship. The main area of overlap is that in both religion and spirituality there is a concern for that which exists beyond the corporeal, rational, and visible universe. Both attempt to provide a means for understanding or knowing that which lies beyond our physical, time-bound world.

3. - What are the 7 levels of consciousness? Describe them in full sentences.

• Survival- involves feeling secure and safe in the world

• Relationships- Feeling a sense of love and belonging

• Self-esteem- Feeling a sense of personal self‐ worth

• Transformation - Becoming more of who you really are by uncovering your authentic self and aligning your ego with your soul.

• Internal cohesion - Finding meaning in your life by aligning with your passion or purpose and creating a vision for your future

• Making a difference- Actualizing your sense of purpose by cooperating with others for mutual benefit and fulfillment.

• Service- Devoting your life to self‐less service in pursuit of your passion or purpose and your vision.

4. – Spirituality and Society: What are the social justice issues that are most important for you? Which ones are at stake and might be seriously affected by the new administration? Explain.

Gender equality, discrimination and access to education. I feel that discrimination is at stake and affect the new administration. Discriminating people due to different religion and spirituality beliefs is a major concern in our societies and it affects a lot of people spiritual life and productivity in the society

5. - How would you describe prayer? What are some of the forms of prayer? What are the deepest forms of prayer? Explain.

Prayer refers to a solemn request for help or expression for thank giving to God or any other object of worship. Forms of prayers include; Blessing and Adoration, Petition, Intercession, Thanksgiving and Praise. I believe the deepest forms of prayers are Thanksgiving and Praise, this is because they appreciate God/Objects of worship and the good work done upon our lives.

6. – What are the four paths to enlightenment and/or union to God in Hinduism?


1. Jnana Yoga : The path of transcendent through knowledge.

2. Bhakti Yoga: The path of devotion, usually by the image of a personal God 3. Raja Yoga: The path of royal (raj) reintegration through psychophysical exercises

4. Karma Yoga: The path of works and action dedicated selflessly to the Supreme.

7. – What are the four noble truths in Buddhism? DESCRIBE/EXPLAIN

a. Dukkha - The truth of suffering

b. Samudaya- The truth of the cause of suffering

c. Nirhodha- The truth of the end of suffering

d. Magga -The truth of the path that frees us from suffering

8. – How are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam similar? What are some very common foundations, principles, and practices?

Judaism, Islam, and Christianity are sometimes called "Abrahamic religions" because they trace their history to the ancient figure of Abraham, first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The major similarity between these three religions is that they are all monotheistic. This means that they believe in only one God. Furthermore, many people would say that they all believe in the same God.

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