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Exam 4: Personality, Psychopathology, Psychotherapy and Social Psychology



Exam 4: Personality, Psychopathology, Psychotherapy and Social Psychology

1. Dennis, a New York City investment broker, quit his job in a fit of rage after being accused of embezzling thousands of dollars of his clients' money. Four months later, the police discovered Dennis driving a cab in Los Angeles. Dennis claimed that his name was actually Michael Hart, that he had always been a cab driver in Los Angeles, and that he had no knowledge of Dennis. Even after he was positively identified as Dennis, “Michael Hart” insisted that he was someone else. Assuming that he was not faking his condition to escape arrest, Dennis was probably suffering from:

a. paranoid schizophrenia. c. dissociative fugue.

b. bipolar disorder. d. delusions of grandeur.

2. According to reciprocal determinism:

a. human behavior and personality are caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.

b. unconscious and conscious forces operate together to determine the nature of personality.

c. genes interact with the environment to determine human personality.

d. human behavior is determined by the unconscious personality dynamics that give rise to self-efficacy.

3. In contrast to Freud, Carl Jung believed that:

a. there were eight stages of psychosexual development.

b. people are driven to overcome feelings of inferiority.

c. men often suffer from womb envy.

d. personality continues to develop in significant ways throughout the lifespan.

4. It was _____ who said, “One should be capable of giving in to others, of fighting, and of keeping to oneself. The three can complement each other and make for a harmonious whole.”

a. Alfred Adler b. Carl Jung c. Karen Horney d. Carl Rogers

5. Dr. Krane studies questions such as why we conform to group norms, what compels us to obey authority figures, and the conditions under which people will help a stranger. Dr. Krane's research focuses on an area of social psychology called:

a. social cognition c. social perception

b. social influence d. ethnocentrism

6. Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic ideas and techniques:

a. are no longer practiced except in European countries.

b. are still the most effective form of psychotherapy available.

c. have had an enormous impact on psychotherapy and continue to be studied today.

d. are the basis of today's behavioral therapies.

7. Jacob is imaginative, creative, and seeks out new experiences. Sean is hardworking, ambitious, neat, and prides himself on never giving up until a task is finished. In terms of the five-factor model, Jacob would probably score high on the dimension of _____, while Sean would probably score high on the dimension of

a. extraversion; introversion c. neuroticism; conscientiousness

b. agreeableness; neuroticism d. openness to experience; conscientiousness

8. According to Carl Rogers, the client-centered therapist ideally should demonstrate:

a. modeling, adaptive thinking patterns, and collaboration.

b. challenge, confrontation, and resolution.

c. therapeutic neutrality, interpretations, and transference capacity.

d. genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding.

9. Even though Mary was not thinking about the events surrounding the day when she graduated from high school, she can easily bring memories about that day to conscious awareness. In terms of Freud's theory of personality, Mary's memories are stored at the _____ level of awareness.

a. conscious b. preconscious c. latent d. fixation

10. In Freud's theory, if a parent overindulges or frustrates the child's expression of pleasurable feelings at a particular psychosexual stage of development:

a. the ego may not develop.

b. the child may experience fixation and continue to seek pleasure through behaviors associated with the particular psychosexual stage.

c. the parent will experience the psychological influence of the superego, which will promote strong feelings of guilt and inferiority.

d. the child will experience reaction formation and behave in a way that is directly opposite to the frustrated desires.

11. When Justine made an oral presentation in class, Meagan joined her classmates in applauding at the end, even though she did not think the presentation was very clear or well organized. Meagan's behavior in this example illustrates:

a. the self effacing bias c. obedience

b. conformity d. hindsight bias

12. The basic assumption of behavior therapy is that:

a. faulty patterns of thinking are producing the current difficulties.

b. adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are learned.

c. every family has unspoken rules of interaction and communication that have contributed to the current difficulties.

d. the therapist must be nondirective and provide the client with unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding.

13. When David is asked to describe his best friend Josh, he responds: “Josh is very friendly, pretty intelligent, and a really nice guy. He seems laid-back, but he actually works hard at keeping up with his college classes. He's a lot of fun because he's always ready to try something new.” David's description of his friend's personality would be most consistent with which of the following approaches to personality?

a. psychoanalytic b. social cognitive c. trait d. humanistic

14. Solomon Asch set up an experimental situation in which participants were asked to identify which of three comparison lines was identical to a standard line. His research was designed to answer a straightforward question, namely:

a. Would people obey an authority figure even if it meant hurting others?

b. Would people intervene and help a person in trouble in the presence of others?

c. Would people still conform to the group if the group opinion was clearly wrong?

d. Would prejudice be reduced if members of different groups were brought into contact with each other?

15. At day care, 3-year-old Sara has learned that she has to wait her turn to ride on the tricycle rather than push another child off the tricycle. Using Freud's terminology, Sara's ability to postpone gratification in a socially acceptable way is a reflection of her:

a. id b. ego c. superego d. thanatos instinct

16. Four-year-old Brooke throws a tantrum when her parents want to leave the playground and go home. Instead of punishing her, Brooke's parents patiently and lovingly try to teach Brooke a more acceptable way of coping with disappointment and frustration. Using Carl Rogers's terminology, Brooke is experiencing a high degree of _____ from her parents.

a. conditional positive regard d. reciprocal determinism

b. unconditional positive regard e. incongruence

c. self-efficacy

17. Which of the following examples reflects a symptom of an anxiety disorder rather than normal anxiety?

a. The night before his final exam, Bill is unable to sleep because he is worried about doing well on the test.

b. For the past several weeks, Mavis has been unable to concentrate at work because she keeps thinking that something terrible might happen to her son at school, even though she knows that he's safe.

c. Seth is upset because his girlfriend told him she wants to start dating other guys, and he is afraid that she will break up with him.

d. Barbara has just found out that her company has been sold, and she is very worried that she might lose her job.

18. Neil and Bonnie are married. Neil is not depressed, but Bonnie is experiencing major depression. Bonnie is more likely to:

a. have very low interest or pleasure in most activities.

b. suffer from gamophobia.

c. have frequent manic episodes characterized by euphoria, high energy, and flight of ideas.

d. sleep soundly.

19. The Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrated the powerful influence of:

a. explicit orders and direct pressure to obey by an authority figure.

b. the bystander effect.

c. situational roles and conformity to implied social rules and norms.

d. the just-world hypothesis.

20. “Punctual behavior” is to “conscientious attitude” as _____ is to _____.

a. introversion; extraversion c. surface trait; source trait

b. anima; animus d. personality type; personality trait

21. Milgram was influenced by Asch's conformity research, but he wanted to take Asch's research a step further and investigate a more important question. What was the question that Milgram wanted to study?

a. Would people still conform to the group if the group opinion was clearly wrong?

b. What factors or conditions produce intergroup conflict and intergroup harmony?

c. What factors increase, or decrease, the likelihood that people will help a stranger?

d. Could people be pressured by others into committing an immoral act or taking an action that violated their conscience, such as hurting a stranger?

22. Normal anxiety is to _____ as pathological anxiety is to ____.

a. severe and global; mild and specific

b. irrational and intense; reasonable and mild

c. disruptive and uncontrollable; adaptive and irrational

d. reasonable and infrequent; irrational and persistent

23. Shawn, a nice-looking, apparently charming man, has been assuming the identity of a financial broker. He recently stole the life savings from several residents of four plush retirement communities after lying about profession. He had no intention of investing their money and felt no remorse for his actions as he walked away with all of their earnings. Because of his lack of remorse for his actions, Shawn might be characterized as having a(n) _____ personality disorder.

a. borderline b. dependent c. avoidant d. antisocial

24. The three essential components of client-centered therapy are:

a. transference, interpretation and resistance

b. catharsis, dream interpretation and insight

c. reinforcers, consequences and tokens

d. genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding

25. Kaitlin is a personality theorist who believes that a person's conscious thoughts in a particular situation are likely to influence his or her goals and behavior. Kaitlin is most likely to agree with which of the following perspectives on personality?

a. the social cognitive perspective c. the behavioral genetic perspective

b. the neo-Freudian perspective d. the psychoanalytic perspective

26. Before leaving home, Margaret makes sure that every electrical appliance is unplugged and checks that every window and door is securely locked. She checks everything seventeen times according to a strict ritual that she has worked out. If she misses one window, door or appliance, she must begin all over again. If she tries to skip any step of the ritual, she experiences unbearable anxiety. What is her problem?

a. specific phobia c. bipolar disorder

b. dissociative identity disorder d. obsessive-compulsive disorder

27. Which of the following illustrates egocentrism?

a. When presented with two rows of six pennies, the child thinks that the row of pennies spaced further apart has more than the other row.

b. While talking on the phone, a little boy holds up four fingers in response to being asked how old he is.

c. Shown two equal balls of clay, the child correctly says that each ball still has the same amount even when one ball of clay is rolled out in a sausage shape.

d. The child creates a “treasure chest” from an old shoe box.

28. When Carol was 8 years old, her mother died. As an adult, Carol has no memories of attending her mother's funeral. Which ego defense mechanism in Freud's theory would best account for the fact that Carol has no memories of this upsetting event?

a. Undoing b. projection c. displacement d. repression

29. Because her baby seemed to enjoy putting so many things in his mouth, Jessica provided the infant with many different kinds of pacifiers and chewable toys. According to Freud's theory, Jessica is running the risk of producing _____ at the _____ psychosexual stage of development.

a. reaction formation; oral c. the Oedipus complex; genital

b. fixation; oral d. fixation; anal

30. According to Alfred Adler, feelings of inferiority:

a. are more prominent in women than in men.

b. are the most fundamental archetype of the collective unconscious.

c. motivate people to compensate for real or imagined weaknesses.

d. are resolved during the latency stage of psychosexual development.

31. Jack was found sleeping on a park bench. When awakened by a police officer, he could not remember who he was or where he lived. Later, investigators discovered that Jack's wife had left him the night before after a violent fight in which he tried to attack her. Jack insists that he has no memories of the dispute with his wife or even of having been married. Jack is probably suffering from:

a. generalized anxiety disorder. c. dissociative possession state.

b. dissociative amnesia. d. hebephrenic schizophrenia.

32. Psychoanalyst Karen Horney described _____ as “the feeling that a child has of being isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world.”

a. the superiority complex c. the inferiority complex

b. basic anxiety d. neuroticism

33. Alyssa is a quiet, rather shy young woman who lives at home while attending college. She would rather meet an old friend for coffee than meet new people or go to parties. In terms of Hans Eysenck's model of personality, Alyssa appears to rate high on the trait of:

a. repression b. psychoticism c. introversion d. extroversion

34. Which of the following claims is MOST supported by the results of the Zimbardo prison study?

a. Rebellion against authority can be suppressed by isolating individuals from each other.

b. People will do pretty much whatever their social roles dictate.

c. We are more likely to take risks when in a group than when acting alone.

d. When people feel anonymous they are more likely to violate social norms than when they can be identified.

35. A private in the army refuses to fire on an enemy because he recognizes one of them as a personal friend. The commander orders the other soldiers to execute him for treason, which they immediately do. Their willingness to shoot their fellow soldier would be predicted by which of the following studies?

a. Zimbardo’s prison study c. Asch’s length perception study

b. Milgram’s shock study d. Latane’ and Darley’s decision tree

36. Social psychology is primarily concerned with the impact of

a. specific situations on individual differences in behavior.

b. educational curriculum on academic performance.

c. other people on one’s behavior and attitudes.

d. emotions on one’s mental health and development.

37. John has been classified as high in introversion. Eysenck would predict that:

a. his nervous system is not as easily aroused as is an extravert's nervous system.

b. he would prefer a quiet environment, because he would tend to react to new stimuli less intensely than an extravert would.

c. he would seek out and thrive in a highly stimulating environment.

d. he would seek out and thrive in an environment that offered a relatively low level of stimulation.

38. Over the past three months, Ivana’s feelings of despondency have intensified for no apparent reason. Although her friends have tried to be encouraging and supportive, Ivana says that she feels completely detached from people, worthless, and has even thought about killing herself. Her symptoms suggest that she is suffering from:

a. schizophrenia c. dissociative fuge

b. major depression d. posttraumatic stress disorder

39. In the last three days, Doug has become progressively more energetic and euphoric. He has been sleeping no more than an hour or two per night, but he seems to have unlimited energy. Doug is inappropriately self-confident as he veers from one grandiose idea to another in his plans to become rich and famous. Doug appears to be experiencing:

a. rapid cycling c. double depression

b. a manic episode d. dissociative identity disorder

40. Peter and Luke are identical twins who are juniors at the same college. Throughout their college years, both have been treated for major depression. Based on what researchers have found from twin studies, we know that it is probable that Peter and Luke:

a. have abnormal brain structures such as smaller frontal lobe and enlarged ventricles.

b. have a deficiency in the neurotransmitter norepinephrine and serotonin.

c. had a viral infection during prenatal development or shortly after birth.

d. have inherited a genetic predisposition for major depression.

41. Mrs. Diaz, whose family emigrated from Colombia when she was a teenager, has recently begun psychotherapy. Her therapist knows that including members of the extended family in family therapy may be particularly appropriate for Latino clients like Mrs. Diaz because:

a. an important cultural value in Latin American culture is that interdependence of the extended family network.

b. for psychotherapy to be effective, all family members must actively participate.

c. it will prevent the individual client from becoming too self-absorbed.

d. it will help the therapist better understand the client’s problems.

42. In the last three days, Doug has become progressively more energetic and euphoric. He has been sleeping no more than an hour or two per night, but he seems to have unlimited energy. Doug is inappropriately self-confident as he veers from one grandiose idea to another in his plans to become rich and famous. Doug appears to be experiencing:

a. rapid cycling. c. symptoms of dissociative identity disorder.

b. a manic episode. d. dissociative identity disorder.

43. Juanita believes that all people share instinctive “memories” that are symbolized by recognizable archetypes. Whose theory does Juanita prefer?

a. Jung b. Freud c. Erikson d. Adler

44. For the third time in two months, Cheryl’s husband rushed her to the hospital emergency room because Cheryl thought she was having a heart attack. Her symptoms included a racing, pounding heart, weakness, feeling faint, and feeling as if she were unable to breathe. Although her doctor says she is physically healthy, Cheryl lives in fear of another attack. She is most likely suffering from:

a. specific phobia c. generalized anxiety disorder

b. obsessive compulsive disorder d. panic disorder

45. When people have experienced multiple traumas, they:

a. are less likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder.

b. are more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder.

c. are likely to develop an immunity to anxiety disorders.

d. are more likely to become violent themselves.

46. Which of the following statements about major depression is FALSE?

a. Symptoms of anxiety often accompany depression.

b. People experiencing major depression become pessimistic and negative about themselves, the world and the future.

c. Episodes of major depression are almost always triggered by a traumatic event or a highly stressful situation.

d. Disrupted and abnormal patterns of sleep are a very common characteristic or major depression.

47. During a therapy session, Luke’s therapist asked him to relax, close his eyes, and say whatever came into his mind. The therapist is using one of the main techniques

a. humanistic therapy c. psychoanalytic therapy

b. behavioral therapy d. cognitive therapy

48. From a humanistic perspective, psychological disturbance results from:

a. the breakdown of an expected stimulus-response relationship.

b. a lack of ego control.

c. a failure of resolve the developmental crises which accompany the development of personality.

d. conditions that prevent a person from achieving personal growth.

49. In social psychology the concept of sense of self is important because:

a. the sense of self distorts and biases everything that people perceive.

b. without a sense of self, people would be much more likely to engage in prosocial behavior and altruism, and would be less likely to become ethnocentric

c. the sense of self is influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences, and it plays a key role in how we perceive and react to others.

d. without a sense of self, people would be less likely to conform to social norms or to follow the orders of an authority figure to harm an innocent person.

50. One explanation for dissociative identity disorder is that it results from:

a. extreme trauma in childhood; the alters are created to embody the dissociated memories and emotions that are too painful for the primary personality to acknowledge.

b. abnormal brain structures, such as enlarged ventricles or smaller than average frontal lobes.

c. an extreme case of bipolar disorder, in which mood swings are so severe that “alternate personalities” seem to exist

d. chemical imbalances in the levels of neurotransmitters such as glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

51. Jayne was in a fast food restaurant with a man walked in, drew a gun, and starting shooting, killing two people before killing himself. Although Jayne was not injured in the shooting spree, she has since been unable to return to work. She can’t seem to stop thinking about the event. She has recurrent nightmares, is unable to sleep, and does not want to leave her home. It is most likely that Jayne is suffering from:

a. general anxiety disorder c. posttraumatic stress disorder

b. cyclothymic disorder d. obsessive-compulsive disorder

52. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

a. Abnormal” behavior is almost always easy to distinguish from “normal” behavior.

b. When someone's behavior strikes you as strange or unusual, you can correctly label the behavior as “psychopathological.”

c. The dividing line between normal and abnormal behavior is often determined by the social or cultural context in which a particular behavior occurs.

d. According to DSM-5, a person who refused to eat foods such as fish, meat, onions, garlic, or other “hot” foods, for six months or longer would be classified as suffering from a mental disorder.

53. Daniel was adopted at birth. In a behavioral genetics study, similarities between Daniel and his adoptive parents are considered to be due to_____, and similarities between Daniel and his biological parents are considered to be due to

a. genetic influences; environmental influences c. environmental influences; genetic influences

b. emergenic influences; heritability of traits d. heritability of traits; environmental influences

54. Wilma lives in the northwest part of the country. Every autumn and winter, as daylight hours get shorter and the weather gets wet and cloudy, she experiences more intense symptoms of major depression. Wilma most likely suffers from:

a. cyclothymic disorder b. seasonal affective disorder c. bipolar d. rapid cycling

55. Five-year-old Sam begins to cry when he discovers that his pet turtle has died. His father scolds Sam for crying and says, “Big boys don't cry.” According to Carl Rogers, because Sam's father is using _____, Sam is likely to _____ his feelings of sadness in the future.

a. punishment; exaggerate c. ego defense mechanisms; rationalize

b. conditional positive regard; d. deny unconditional positive regard; accept

56. Alan always has been afraid of spiders. He refuses to enter his bedroom at night until it has been thoroughly checked for spiders. Even a picture of a spider makes him extremely uncomfortable. Most likely Alan is suffering from a psychological disorder called:

a. generalized anxiety disorder c. specific phobia

b. posttraumatic stress disorder d. obsessive anxiety disorder

57. How long did the Stanford Prison Experiment last before the situation became “out of control”?

a. six months b. six days c. six weeks d. sixteen weeks

58. Philip Zimbardo made the claim that “the value of the _____ Experiment resides in demonstrating the evil that good people can be readily induced into doing to other good people within the context of socially approved roles, rules, and norms.”

a. Jigsaw Classroom c. Stanford Prison

b. Robbers Cave d. Asch Conformity

59. The following symptoms -- severe problems with thoughts, perceptions, communications, emotions, motor behavior and social situations -- are characteristic of people with

a. schizophrenia c. bipolar disorder

b. dissociative disorder d. multiple personality

60. In general terms, psychotherapy can be defined as a specialized process in which a trained professional uses psychological methods to help a person with psychological problems.

a. True b. False

61. Dr. Whitaker is a psychotherapist who tells each of his patients the following: “You think that you’re unhappy because of all the dreadful things that have happened to you. I’m here to show you that your unhappiness is really due to your thinking that all the things that have happened to you are dreadful!” Based on this statement, which type of psychotherapy does Dr. Whitaker practice?

a. cognitive therapy c. behavior therapy

b. humanistic therapy d. psychoanalytic therapy

62. Philip has been hospitalized for an episode of schizophrenia. He believes that secret agents are bombarding his brain with gamma rays, and he sometimes sees grotesque creatures climbing on the wall of his hospital room. Philip's symptoms are referred to as:

a. atypical symptoms of schizophrenia. c. negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

b. positive symptoms of schizophrenia. d. primary symptoms of schizophrenia.

63. What do free association and dream interpretation have in common?

a. they are part of client-centered therapy

b. they were used by Freud to uncover unconscious thoughts

c. they are part of all real psychotherapy

d. they are used as an alternative to psychoanalysis

64. Identify the correct way in which the social cognitive perspective on personality differs from both the psychoanalytic and the humanistic perspectives.

a. The social cognitive perspective stresses the importance of unconscious influences.

b. The social cognitive perspective stresses the importance of individual differences.

c. The social cognitive perspective emphasizes insights derived from case studies.

d. The social cognitive perspective emphasizes information derived from empirical research and experimental data.

65. Danny, who has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, falsely believes that outside forces in the form of aliens from another universe have power over him and actively influence and manipulate his actions and thoughts. These types of delusions are called:

a. delusions of grandeur. c. delusions of persecution.

b. delusions of being controlled. d. delusions of reference.

66. DSM-IV-TR provides mental health professionals with:

a. both a common language for labeling mental disorders and comprehensive guidelines for diagnosing them.

b. pictures of “crazy” people.

c. very rough guidelines for diagnosing mental disorders.

d. comprehensive guidelines for diagnosing only treatment-resistant mental disorders.

67. There is no single “best” therapeutic approach to treating mental illness. It would be fair to say that an effective therapist would use a combination of approaches tailored to the unique needs of the patient.

a. True b. False

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