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Exam 3: Cognition and Intelligence, Motivation and Emotions, Health, Stress and Coping, Life Span De



Exam 3: Cognition and Intelligence, Motivation and Emotions, Health, Stress and Coping, Life Span Development

1. If you follow the traffic laws and rules because they are legitimate and good for the public welfare, you are demonstrating the _____ stage of moral development at the _____ level.

a. punishment and obedience; preconvention c. social contract; post conventional

b. law and order; conventional d. instrumental-exchange; preconventional

2. Which developmental sequence below is correct for the prenatal development of the human infant?

a. germinal - fetus - embryo c. fetus - germinal – embryo

b. embryo- germinal – fetus d. germinal- embryo - fetus

3. According to Maslow’s theory, people who move beyond basic human needs in the quest for the fullest development of their potential are trying to achieve:

a. an external locus of control c. self actualization

b. optimal arousal d. an esteem hierarchy

4. When Diana’s computer would not respond to commands from the wireless keyboard, she tried restarting the computer, as that strategy had worked in the past. After several tries, the keyboard still did not work so she gave up and called the Geek Squad. A technician easily solved the problem: the batteries in the wireless keyboard needed to be replaced. Nzolle’s inability to solve the problem on her own had been hampered by her:

a. functional fixedness c. algorithm

b. mental set d. heuristic

5. The term ____ refers to the stage in which an individual reaches sexual maturity and becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction, while _______ is the period of development prior to adulthood.

a. puberty; centration d. zone of proximal development; adolescence

b. puberty; adolescence e. adolescence; puberty

c. young adulthood; maturation

6. About 10 or 15 minutes after Jim starts his daily five-mile jog, he usually begins to perspire heavily. His body's tendency to maintain a steady temperature through the cooling action of sweating is a function of:

a. homeostasis b. self-actualization c. instinct d. incentive motivation

7. The major difference between midlife transition and midlife crisis has to do with:

a. the level of satisfaction one has with one’s accomplishment in life

b. the degree of willingness to age gracefully.

c. the degree to which someone accepts a terminal illness during middle adulthood.

d. none of the above

e. both a and b

8. Dr. Jamison theorized that people age as a result of biological processes that place a built-in time limit to the production of human cells. According to this perspective, Dr. Jamison ascribes to which of the following theories.

a. Disengagement Theory c. Genetic Programming Theory

b. Activity Theory d. Wear and Tear Theory

9. During the 1960’s, many males were faced with the choice of going to Vietnam and fighting in a war they did not believe in or they deserted, an act that meant giving up personal freedom. This was an example of the:

a. approach-avoidance conflict c. approach-approach conflict

b. avoidance-avoidance conflict d. double approach-avoidance conflict

10. Shortly after getting over the shock of losing his job as managing director of the Electra Company, Casey started to actively search for a new job. At this point in time, Casey had passed through the ____ stage and is now in the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

a. exhaustion; denial c. alarm; resistance

b. denial; resistance d. alarm; exhaustion

11. Dr. Amaya believes that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal. When that level is too low, we try to increase it by seeking out stimulating experiences. When it is too high, we seek to reduce arousal in a less stimulating environment. Dr. Amaya's views are most consistent with:

a. arousal theories b. drivetheories c. incentive theories d. humanistic theories

12. Someone who burns his country’s flag just because constitutional law says he can is reasoning at the _____ stage of moral development; whereas someone who burns his country’s flag because he believes that his country has lost its legitimacy is reasoning at the _____ stage.

a. punishment and obedience; individual principle c. law and order; legal principle

b. individual principle; instrumental-exchange d. individual principle; individual principle

13. The elderly who age most successfully are those who maintain and engage in interests and activities they had during middle adulthood. This is known as the:

a. Disengagement Theory c. Genetic Programming Theory

b. Activity Theory d. Wear and Tear Theory

14. Which is the most likely explanation for the findings that implicate stress as a cause of cancer?

a. There are genetic causes for both stress and cancer. c. Stress reduces the effectiveness of the immune system.

b. Stress produces worry, which produces poor hygiene. d. Stress affects the production of new RNA.

15. According to Elizabeth Kubler-Roth, when people are confronted with the experience of death, they simply accept the reality of the situation and try their best to move forward.

a. YES b. NO

16. When Alfred Binet developed the first intelligence test he believed that:

a. he was measuring an innate, fixed level of mental ability

b. he was measuring multiple intelligences, including musical intelligence, spatial intelligence, personal intelligence, practical intelligence and so forth.

c. he was NOT measuring an innate, fixed level of mental ability

d. he was measuring three basic forms of intelligence called componential, experiential and contextual intelligence.

17. When Spencer took his first ride on the big Ferris wheel, he looked down at the fairground one hundred feet below him and became aware of his high level of physiological arousal. Suddenly he felt frightened. The sequence of events in Spencer’s emotional experience reflects the:

. a. facial feedback hypothesis of emotion c. set-point theory of emotion

b. James-Lange theory of emotion d. cognitive-appraisal theory of emotion

18. Anali is trying to select a new couch for her living room. As she looks at each couch at the furniture store, she tries to visualize how it would look in her living room at home. Anali is using _____ to help her determine which couch to buy.

a. a prototype b. a natural concept c. a formal concept d. mental imagery

19. The sister of a murdered woman was among the protesters outside the prison in the hours before the execution. When a reporter asked the woman why she was opposed to the execution of the man who had murdered her sister, she explained that she was opposed to all killing, including the execution of her sister’s murderer. In terms of Kohlberg’s theory, the woman is operating at the _______ level of moral reasoning.

a. preconventional c. law and order e. postconventional

b. conventional d. legal principle

20. As part of his homework assignment, Michael memorizes the names of all the planets in the solar system, learned the distance between the Earth and the Sun, decided what items he still needed to research in the library, and spent some time daydreaming about space travel. In the most general sense, Michael was engaged in:

a. thinking b. procrastination c. trial and error d. displacement

21. Age of viability:

a. fetal stage: increases probability of a miscarriage. c. germinal stage; increases brain growth

d. fetal stage: increases probability of life in premature birth d. embryonic stage; movement in womb

22. Which of the following statements describe emotions?

a. Emotions are states of feelings that affect behavior.

b. Emotions are often accompanied by physiological changes.

c. Emotions often arise in response to external situations.

d. All of the above.

23. In an emotional situation, the cognitive view would suggest that:

a. we identify the emotion we are experiencing by observing cues from the environment.

b. we sense our internal responses to the situation, and this experience is the emotion.

c. the brain simultaneously sends messages to the cortex and to internal organs and these actions result in the emotion.

d. various hormones and body chemicals pour into the bloodstream, causing internal bodily changes, which are the experienced emotion.

24. Camila and Christina are identical twins who were raised in different homes. However, Camila’s IQ score was substantially lower than Chrisitna’s IQ score. This example provides support primarily for the influence of _____ on intelligence or IQ.

a. environment b. genes c. innate language capacity d. neither genes nor environment

25. When a typist changes from a conventional typewriter to a word processor, the process of _________ will have to be incorporated in order to make adjustments for the new techniques needed for the new equipment.

a. assimilation b. differentiate c. accommodation d. recapitulate

26. Gian’s car was not running well. The car would occasionally lose power or stall out. Gian thought about the possible solutions: change the ignition wires, putting an additive in the gas tank, or taking the car to a mechanic and letting the mechanic figure out the problem. Gian decided that he would try putting an additive in the gas tank first to see if that corrected the problem. Which of Sternberg’s intelligences does it sound like gian is using?

a. naturalist intelligence c. analytic intelligence

b. creative intelligence d. logical-mathematical intelligence

27. Muna is a wonderful artist, but lacks skills in dancing. According to Gardner, she lacks ______intelligence, but possesses _______ intelligence.

a. musical; spatial c. bodily-kinesthetic; spatial

b. spatial; bodily kinesthetic d. rhythmic; spatial

28. The embryonic period of prenatal development is marked by the ________ period, which is a time when the embryo is most susceptible to environmental factors that could disrupt normal development.

a. teratogens b. critical c. special d. radical

29. The view that some human motives are innate and due to genetic programming is the description of:

a. drive theories b. instinct theories c. incentive theories d. humanistic theories

30. ______________ is crucial for survival and development.

a. Teratogen b. Critical development c. Comfort contact d. Teething

31. After working all afternoon cleaning the attic, Dr. Mahmud is very thirsty and drinks a big glass of orange juice. His motivation to drink in order to reduce the feeling of thirst can best be explained by:

a. self-determination theory c. drive theory

b. incentive theory d. arousal theory

32. Dr. Smith is a researcher who believes physical and emotional health are affected by the complex interaction of biological, behavioral, and social factors. Thus, Dr. Smith’s research is guided by the model.

a. general adaptation c. psychoneuroimmunology

b. biopsychosocial d. cognitive appraisal

33. The fact that different cultures use the same facial expressions to express different emotions would lead researchers to believe that expressions are ________, rather than _________.

a. situational; emotional c. innate; learned

b. cognitive; biophysical d. physical; mental

34. During the embryonic period, the:

a. mother can feel the fetus moving. c. organs and major systems of the body begin to form.

b. zygote undergoes rapid cell division. d. fetus gains an additional three to four pounds of body fat.

35. Diego is a police detective. To cope with his high level of stress, he goes to aerobic classes and works out in the gym four or five times a week. Diego is using a(n) ______ coping strategy.

a. emotion-focused; positive reappraisal c. problem-focused; confrontive coping

b. emotion-focused; escape-avoidance d. problem-focused; seeking social support

36. In terms of daily hassles, what gender differences have been found?

a. Daily hassles for men are most commonly related to financial and job-related issues, while daily hassles for women are commonly due to family demands and interpersonal conflict.

b. Women’s daily hassles are more commonly related to money problems, while men’s daily hassles are more commonly due to interpersonal conflicts.

c. There are no significant gender differences in either the frequency or cause of daily hassles.

d. Men are more likely to cope with daily hassles by becoming angry, while women are more likely to respond to daily hassles by withdrawing from others.

37. Gayle is very inconsistent in the care she gives her new baby. Often, she neglects the baby’s needs and is emotionally cold toward the infant. In terms of Horney’s theory of personality development, the baby is likely to develop:

a. mistrust b. basic anxiety c. inferiority d. role confusion

38. Having virtually no hesitation you can say that pigs, sheep, and cows are all examples of the concept of mammals, but you hesitate a few seconds before deciding whether bats and porpoises are also mammals. This suggest that pigs, sheep, and cows are ____ of the concept mammals.

a. stereotypes b. prototypes c. algorithms d. heuristics

39. A situation is considered stressful if it:

a. is perceived as threatening and a person lacks the resources to deal or cope with it effectively.

b. is perceived to be dangerous by most people.

c. causes an increased heart rate.

d. is dangerous.

40. When Alexander missed his connecting flight due to bad weather, he became extremely upset and worried about the important meeting he was going to miss. In this scenario, the missed connection is an example of a _____, and his response to the missed connection is an example of _____.

a. life event; the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome c. stress; stressor

b. hassle; the stress contagion effect d. stressor; stress

41. Developmental psychology divided the lifespan into:

a. four distinct psychosocial stages of development and six physical stages of development

b. genetic and environmental phases of development

c. continuous and abrupt aspects of development

d. eight age-related stages of development

42. People who must cope with crime, poverty, substandard housing and unemployment in their everyday environment often experience:

a. marginalization b. approach-avoidance conflicts c. acculturative stress d. chronic stress

43. In contrast to the conclusion reached by early stress researchers Holmes and Rahe, contemporary health psychologists now believe that:

a. to improve its predictive power, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale needs to be expanded from 43 life events to 125 life events.

b. positive life events, such as vacations or marriage, have a worse impact on physical health and negative life events.

c. the impact of major life events is more damaging than originally thought and high scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale are invariably associated with severe illness and disease.

d. most people weather major life events without developing severe physical or psychological problems.

44. Witnessing or surviving a violent attack and experiences associated with combat, warfare, or major disasters are examples of the types of events that are typically considered to be:

a. life change units b. traumatic c. type A events d. daily hassles

45. Nathan and William are having a heated argument about whether a particular basketball player is one of the “super-greats” or just one of the “greats” of basketball. Because you have read the chapter, you point out to them that their argument may never be resolved because:

a. “super-great basketball players” is a natural concept with fuzzy boundaries

b. “super-great basketball players” is a heuristic without hard and fast rules

c. “super-great basketball players” is a formal concept, but your friends are unaware of the rules that define it

d. “super-great basketball players” is an algorithm and requires a clear prototype for accurate classification

46. Thirty-year-old Alayna is painfully shy and so sensitive to rejection that she rarely talks to people other than her coworkers and her family members. Occasionally, a man asks her out, but she always refuses. She spends a good deal of time reading and writing in her diary about her loneliness and other feelings. According to Erikson’s theory, Alayna is facing the psychosocial conflict of _____ and is likely to develop _____.

a. industry versus inferiority; industry c. generativity versus stagnation; stagnation

b. autonomy versus guilt; guilt d. intimacy versus isolation; isolation

47. Reflexes that are present at birth will

a. eventually evolve into complex voluntary behaviors. c. remain intact throughout a person’s life.

b. cause teratogens to flourish. d. none of the above.

48. Juliette overslept, got caught in rush hour traffic, and was late for work. During lunch she spilled coffee on her clothes. When she left work that afternoon she got caught in a sudden downpour of rain. By the time she arrived home, she felt drained, grumpy, and stressed out. Juliette’s present state is the result of the cumulative effect of:

a. major life events b. conflicts c. daily hassles d. life changing units

49. Charles Spearman believes that a general factor is responsible for overall intelligence and performance on mental ability tests. This factor is inherited and can be expressed as a single number such as an IQ score. Spearman calls it the ___________.

a. intelligence factor b. g factor c. race factor d. correlated factor

50. If you cannot remember which United States president is pictured on a $5 bill the reason is most likely:

a. interference. b. encoding failure. c. decay. d. motivatedforgetting.

51. For religious reasons, some people do not eat pork. If someone was starving and still refused to eat pork, it could be said that a __________ was stronger than a __________.

a. primary motive; psychological motive c. safety motive; biological motive

b. psychological motive; primary motive d. biological motive; safety motive

52. Stress can DIRECTLY undermine health and physical well-being by:

a. altering body functions in a way that leads to physical symptoms and illness

b. disrupting attention and concentration

c. making people more likely to use tobacco, alcohol and other drugs

d. making people less likely to meet deadlines and commitments

53. When Hamid emigrated to Canada, he went to live with relatives in a neighborhood populated by others from his country. Hamid speaks his native language, socializes with people who belong to the same ethnic group, and has not yet tried to learn English. Hamid’s pattern of acculturation is called:

a. integration b. assimilation c. marginalization d. separation

54. After media coverage of two spectacular bus crashes, people overestimated the probability of being killed or injured in a bus crash and exaggerated the dangers of bus travel. This is an example of:

a. functional fixedness c. the availability heuristic

b. the representative heuristic d. mental set

55. When she studies for her humanities tests, Kelly always goes to the classroom where the humanities class is held. By studying in the same setting where she will take the test, Kelly is trying to use _____ to her advantage.

a. the context effect b. déjà vu c. implicit memory d. mood congruence

56. Suppose you are an engineer hired to construct a suit for an astronaut to use when traveling in space. You tackle the problem by dividing it into smaller problems, such as fabric, life support, elimination, etc. This approach is an example of:

a. Heuristic b. Algorithm c.Subgoal Analysis d. Trial and Error

57. Akrem’s efforts to meet his sales goals contributed to a series of illnesses culminating in a serious heart attack. Generalizing from the text and class discussion, this kind of reaction is most likely to occur during which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?

a. latent b. alarm and mobilization c. resistance d. exhaustion

58. Faced with a wide variety of computers to choose from, Lucy first eliminated all models that would not fit comfortably on her desk. Next, she eliminated all models costing more than $1,000. Finally, she eliminated all models without a full year’s warranty. It appears that Lucy is using the _______ of decision making.

a. single-feature model c. elimination by aspects model

b. additive model d. integrative model

59. The rooting, sucking and grasping reflexes:

a. become stronger and more pronounced during the first six months of life.

b. gradually disappear over the first year of life and replaced by complex voluntary behaviors.

c. disappear within the first month of life.

d. first appear at about three months of life.

60. When Jean-Claude came back from skiing he wanted to brew a cup of coffee. Because he was out of coffee filters, he settled for a cup of tea. Jean-Claude’s failure to realize he could use a paper towel as a coffee filter best illustrates:

a. divergent thinking b. a prototype c. functional fixedness d. an algorithm

61. The Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye:

a. described the fight-or-flight response which involves the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system.

b. defined stress as the “nonspecific response of the body to any demand placed on it.”

c. both a and b

d. neither a or b

62. Dr. Le systematically mixed thousands of different combination of chemical compounds in order to find one that would be a pollution- free refrigerator coolant and eliminating those that do not work. Dr. Le’s approach best illustrates:

a. Heuristic b. Algorithm c. Subgoal Analysis d. Trial and Error

63. Christopher is a 12-year-old with a mental age of 15. His IQ would be:

a. 100 b. 83 c. 125 d. 115

64. When Alice arrived home she was shocked to see that her house had been burglarized and ransacked, and she was terrified that the burglar might still be in the house. It is very probable that Alice’s sympathetic nervous system has stimulated her adrenal medulla to secrete hormones called:

a. cortcosteriods b. dopamine c. catecholamines d. serotonin

65. Although it is obvious to most of Bernie’s friends and family that he drinks too much, his wife Betsy refuses to admit that he has a drinking problem. She insists that his is a moderate drinker who has the occasional glass of red wine for medicinal purposes. In this situation it is possible that Betsy is using an emotion-focused coping strategy called:

a. wishful thinking b. escape-avoidance c. denial d. distancing

66. At first, Mohummed was despondent when he didn’t make the Olympic team. Upon reflection, however, he decided that the training he did and the knowledge he gained from competing against the best in the country were beneficial experiences that would help him in his personal life as well as in the future competition. Mohummed is using an emotion-focused coping strategy called:

a. denial b. planful problem solving c. distancing d. positive reappraisal

67. Donald is a very competitive and impatient stockbroker who often gets annoyed over insignificant matters. He has a reputation for being hostile and angry and tends to be suspicious, mistrustful, and to blame others for his losses. Donald is likely to be classified as having a:

a. Type A behavior pattern c. low risk of coronary disease and ill health

b. Type B behavior pattern d. low risk of coronary disease but high risk of getting cancer

68. Sarah is determined to play the role of Clara in the ballet, “The Nutcracker.” She begins to work very hard in ballet classes with this goal in mind. Sarah is demonstrating which characteristic of motivation?

a. instinctual drive b. sensation seeking c. self-actualization d. activation

69. In order to find out if her new abstract reasoning test is a good test at measuring what it was designed to measure, Dr. Marshall compares the scores on her test with the scores and grades of college students enrolled in courses that involve abstract reasoning. In this instance, Dr. Marshall is in the process of:

a. establishing the test’s reliability. c. standardizing the test.

b. establishing the test’s validity. d. establishing the test’s variability.

70. As Tim was swinging his toy hammer, the hammer flew out of his hand and landed behind the couch and out of view. Rather than look for it, Tim acted as though the hammer no longer existed. Tim’s behavior suggests that he is in the ________ of cognitive development and has not yet mastered __________.

a. preoperational stage: conservation c. formal operational stage: hypothetical thinking

b. concrete operational stage; mental imagery d. sensory motor stage; object permanence

71. The concept of least restrictive environment (Public Law 94-142) refers to which of the following?

a. government mandates on educating the mentally retarded

b. a therapeutic approach to deal with the mentally ill

c. preferred method of raising children to develop creativity

d. social psychologists’ suggestions regarding jailing inmates

72. Nine-year old Mary is limited in her ability to learn from materials. Although she is considered mildly retarded, she takes two of her classes in a regular fourth grade classroom. This is known as:

a. mainstreaming c. special education

b. classes for the gifted d. compensation

73. Which of the following is NOT one of the key brain structures involved in encoding and storing memories?

a. amygdala b. hippocampus c. prefrontal cortex d. hypothalamus

74. As her car spun out of control on an icy road, Maris’s muscles tensed and her blood pressure, heartbeat, and pulse increased dramatically. This rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions is called the:

a. general adaptation response c. slip-and-slide response

b. fight-or-flight response d. startle-freeze response

75. As Rick was filling out the loan application, he couldn’t remember his previous address even though he had lived there for five years. Rick’s memory of his current address was interfering with his memory of his old address, which is an example of:

a. encoding failure c. the proactive interference

b. retroactive interference d. the misinformation effect

76. Dr. Medely believes that emotion is the result of interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal. This view is most consistent with the ____ theory of emotion.

a. self-determination b. self-efficacy c. James-Lange d. two-factor

77. Brian’s friends all believe that he has a lot of “street smarts” and can cope with the people and events in his environment, despite the fact that he has never done well in school. Robert Sternberg would say that Brian

a. lacks fluid intelligence. c. lacks a high “g.”

b. has crystallized intelligence d. has contextual or practical intelligence.

78. As a new immigrant to the United States, Yangtse was faced with two fundamental questions: “Should I seek positive relations with the dominant society?” and “Is my original cultural identity of value to me, and should I try to maintain it?” Yangtse answered “yes” to both. Yangtse’s pattern of acculturation is called:

a. integration b. assimilation c. marginalization d. separation

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