Chapter 8 TestBank
What are the 6 major nutrient categories?
1. carbohydrates 2. proteins 3. fat 4. vitamin 5. mineral 6. water
unit of energy or heat that describes the amount of energy in a food
U.S.D.A recommends that most of the calories come from _______
* the body's main source of energy * provides the foundation for a healthy diet
True/False: All carbohydrate rich foods are healthy food choices
What are the two main classifications of carbohydrates?
simple & complex
* found in foods such as fruits & milk * creates products such as table sugar & corn syrup
simple (sugar) carbohydrate
* found in starch & fiber * contained in foods such as whole-grain breads & vegetables
Simple & complex carbs provide __ calories per gram of weight
The healthiest complex carbohydrate choices are high in ________ ( contain vitamins, minerals, other nutrients, and remain low in calories )
* foods that contain a lot of vitamins & minerals & fewer calories * Ex: apples, whole-grain bread, salmon, steamed vegetables, & black beans
What are the two main types of dietary fibers?
soluble & insoluble
* partially digestible * fiber that can be partially broken down by the digestive system * found inside of fruits, vegetables, and grains
* not digestible * fiber that cannot be broken down by the digestive system * found in the outer layer of fruits, vegetables, and grains
________ help absorb damaging substances in your body & maintain normal digestive function
* provides the body with energy & builds, repairs, and maintains body cells * mostly found in animal products such as [meat, eggs, cheese, milk] * also found in plants, grains, beans, vegetables
Proteins contain __ calories per gram of weight
________ helps generate and repair tissue
During digestion, your body breaks down protein into smaller building blocks known as ________ _______
__ known AA are required for normal functioning
one of the 9 AA that must be eaten in the diet for normal protein metabolism to occur
essential amino acids
* a food that provides ALL 9 AA * Ex: animal products
* a food that provides SOME of the AA * Ex: grains, beans, vegetables
* combining incomplete protein sources to make a complete protein * Ex: black beans w/ brown rice
complementary protein sources
____ is found in animal products & some plant products (nuts, vegetable oils)
Fat contains __ calories per gram of weight
_____ is essential for dissolving & carrying certain vitamins, repairing of tissues, aids in growth, and normal functioning in nervous system (brain functioning)
True/False: Foods higher in fat provide more calories
Fat is classified as either __________ or _____________
* this type of fat is found in animal products * solid @ room temp. * Ex: lard, butter, milk fat, meat fat
* this type of fat is found in vegetable products (oils) * liquid @ room temp * Ex: sunflower, corn, soybean, peanut, almond, olive oils)
True/False: Saturated fat is healthier than unsaturated fat
Fish also produce _________ fat in their cells.
This term is used when an unsaturated fat looks or acts as a saturated fat
What is another term for a trans-fatty acid?
* A waxy, fatlike substance found in the cells of all mammals inc. humans * it can also be made in your liver from saturated fat
People who eat a lot of _________ fat are more likely to produce more cholesterol in their liver & more cholesterol in blood
High blood cholesterol puts you in a risk of atherosclerosis and other ___________ diseases
Vitamins, minerals, and water are necessary for which 3 things?
1. normal growth 2. development 3. maintenance of body
* organic compounds that are essential to your body's normal growth, functioning, & maintenance
Vitamin C & B are ______ _______ (dissolve in water)
* essential nutrients that help regulate the activities of your cells * present in all plants & animals
What are the 2 most common minerals?
calcium & iron
__________ helps build & maintain your bones
True/False: Females are at greater risk of losing bone mass later in life
a disease which involves loss of bone mass
* minerals that are preservative & enhance flavor * added to may foods such as chips & fast food * increases risk of high blood pressure
What should you eat in order to reduce the risk of high blood pressure?
fruits & vegetables
What is the most important nutrient?
______ helps regulate body temperature
True/False: Fruits and vegetables contain some water.
How many quarts of water each day does your body lose? By doing what?
2-3 / sweating, breathing, and elimination through the bowels & bladder
% of calories recommended by USDA for carbs --
% of calories recommended by USDA for fat --
% of calories recommended by USDA for proteins --
gives you info. about food's serving size & content (inc. carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins & minerals)
gives you info. related to essential nutrients that can be very useful in making dietary decisions
* regulated statements about a food product that relates to the nutrition content of the food * Ex: "fat free" "lean beef" "low sodium"
Gram of fat = how many calories?
What formula is used to determine the % of fat calories in a given food?
1. divide total calories from fat per serving by overall calorie total per serving 2. multiply the result by 100
In fig. 8.2, 1 serving contains 15 calories of fat & the overall calories per serving is 60. Find the percentage of fat calories.
regulated statement about a food product that relates directly to a health condition/disease such as "heart healthy" or "helps prevent osteoporosis"
statement found on a food or supplement, such as vitamins, that relates to a function or specific structure in the body such as "improves eyesight" or "builds strong bones"
What 5 foods does the whole plate consist of?
1. Fruits 2. Vegetables 3. Grains 4. Protein 5. Dairy
Teenage girls should eat ___ cups of fruit per day & boy __ cups daily
1 1/2, 2
Teenage girls should eat ___ cups of vegetables per day & boy __ cups daily
2 1/2, 3
For grains, teenage girls should eat __ oz. equivalents per day & boys should eat __ oz. equiv
For protein, teenage girls should eat __ oz. equivalents per day & boys should eat __ oz. equiv
5, 6 1/2
For dairy, both girls & boys need __ cups each day
Nutrient-dense foods (low in calories/high in vitamins&minerals) is the opposite of
calories that come from solid fat or added sugar
Ex. of solid fat - trans-fatty acid, butter, beef fat
Ex. of added sugar - table sugar & corn syrup (found in cakes, cookies, ice cream, chips)
Coffee drinks can also be very high in _____ ______