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Chapter 8 TestBank

What are the 6 major nutrient categories?

1. carbohydrates 2. proteins 3. fat 4. vitamin 5. mineral 6. water

unit of energy or heat that describes the amount of energy in a food


U.S.D.A recommends that most of the calories come from _______


* the body's main source of energy * provides the foundation for a healthy diet


True/False: All carbohydrate rich foods are healthy food choices


What are the two main classifications of carbohydrates?

simple & complex

* found in foods such as fruits & milk * creates products such as table sugar & corn syrup

simple (sugar) carbohydrate

* found in starch & fiber * contained in foods such as whole-grain breads & vegetables

complex carbohydrate

Simple & complex carbs provide __ calories per gram of weight


The healthiest complex carbohydrate choices are high in ________ ( contain vitamins, minerals, other nutrients, and remain low in calories )


* foods that contain a lot of vitamins & minerals & fewer calories * Ex: apples, whole-grain bread, salmon, steamed vegetables, & black beans

nutrient-dense foods

What are the two main types of dietary fibers?

soluble & insoluble

* partially digestible * fiber that can be partially broken down by the digestive system * found inside of fruits, vegetables, and grains

soluble fiber

* not digestible * fiber that cannot be broken down by the digestive system * found in the outer layer of fruits, vegetables, and grains

insoluble fiber

________ help absorb damaging substances in your body & maintain normal digestive function


* provides the body with energy & builds, repairs, and maintains body cells * mostly found in animal products such as [meat, eggs, cheese, milk] * also found in plants, grains, beans, vegetables


Proteins contain __ calories per gram of weight


________ helps generate and repair tissue


During digestion, your body breaks down protein into smaller building blocks known as ________ _______

amino acids

__ known AA are required for normal functioning


one of the 9 AA that must be eaten in the diet for normal protein metabolism to occur

essential amino acids

* a food that provides ALL 9 AA * Ex: animal products

complete protein

* a food that provides SOME of the AA * Ex: grains, beans, vegetables

incomplete protein

* combining incomplete protein sources to make a complete protein * Ex: black beans w/ brown rice

complementary protein sources

____ is found in animal products & some plant products (nuts, vegetable oils)


Fat contains __ calories per gram of weight


_____ is essential for dissolving & carrying certain vitamins, repairing of tissues, aids in growth, and normal functioning in nervous system (brain functioning)


True/False: Foods higher in fat provide more calories


Fat is classified as either __________ or _____________

saturated, unsaturated

* this type of fat is found in animal products * solid @ room temp. * Ex: lard, butter, milk fat, meat fat

saturated fat

* this type of fat is found in vegetable products (oils) * liquid @ room temp * Ex: sunflower, corn, soybean, peanut, almond, olive oils)

unsaturated fat

True/False: Saturated fat is healthier than unsaturated fat


Fish also produce _________ fat in their cells.


This term is used when an unsaturated fat looks or acts as a saturated fat

trans-fatty acid

What is another term for a trans-fatty acid?

hydrogenated fat

* A waxy, fatlike substance found in the cells of all mammals inc. humans * it can also be made in your liver from saturated fat


People who eat a lot of _________ fat are more likely to produce more cholesterol in their liver & more cholesterol in blood


High blood cholesterol puts you in a risk of atherosclerosis and other ___________ diseases


Vitamins, minerals, and water are necessary for which 3 things?

1. normal growth 2. development 3. maintenance of body

* organic compounds that are essential to your body's normal growth, functioning, & maintenance


Vitamin C & B are ______ _______ (dissolve in water)

water soluble

* essential nutrients that help regulate the activities of your cells * present in all plants & animals


What are the 2 most common minerals?

calcium & iron

__________ helps build & maintain your bones


True/False: Females are at greater risk of losing bone mass later in life


a disease which involves loss of bone mass


* minerals that are preservative & enhance flavor * added to may foods such as chips & fast food * increases risk of high blood pressure


What should you eat in order to reduce the risk of high blood pressure?

fruits & vegetables

What is the most important nutrient?


______ helps regulate body temperature


True/False: Fruits and vegetables contain some water.


How many quarts of water each day does your body lose? By doing what?

2-3 / sweating, breathing, and elimination through the bowels & bladder

% of calories recommended by USDA for carbs --


% of calories recommended by USDA for fat --


% of calories recommended by USDA for proteins --


gives you info. about food's serving size & content (inc. carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins & minerals)

nutrition label

gives you info. related to essential nutrients that can be very useful in making dietary decisions

food label

* regulated statements about a food product that relates to the nutrition content of the food * Ex: "fat free" "lean beef" "low sodium"

nutrient claims

Gram of fat = how many calories?


What formula is used to determine the % of fat calories in a given food?

1. divide total calories from fat per serving by overall calorie total per serving 2. multiply the result by 100

In fig. 8.2, 1 serving contains 15 calories of fat & the overall calories per serving is 60. Find the percentage of fat calories.


regulated statement about a food product that relates directly to a health condition/disease such as "heart healthy" or "helps prevent osteoporosis"

Health claims

statement found on a food or supplement, such as vitamins, that relates to a function or specific structure in the body such as "improves eyesight" or "builds strong bones"

Structure/function claims

What 5 foods does the whole plate consist of?

1. Fruits 2. Vegetables 3. Grains 4. Protein 5. Dairy

Teenage girls should eat ___ cups of fruit per day & boy __ cups daily

1 1/2, 2

Teenage girls should eat ___ cups of vegetables per day & boy __ cups daily

2 1/2, 3

For grains, teenage girls should eat __ oz. equivalents per day & boys should eat __ oz. equiv

3-6, 4-8

For protein, teenage girls should eat __ oz. equivalents per day & boys should eat __ oz. equiv

5, 6 1/2

For dairy, both girls & boys need __ cups each day


Nutrient-dense foods (low in calories/high in vitamins&minerals) is the opposite of

empty calories

calories that come from solid fat or added sugar

empty calories

Ex. of solid fat - trans-fatty acid, butter, beef fat


Ex. of added sugar - table sugar & corn syrup (found in cakes, cookies, ice cream, chips)


Coffee drinks can also be very high in _____ ______

empty calories

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