Chapter 5 Assignment - The Module 5 Reading Guide
1. What are the basic definitions and differences between behavioral and social learning theories?
Behavioral learning theories focus on the ways that pleasurable or unpleasant consequences of behavior change individuals’ behavior over time and the way individuals model their behavior on that of others. Social learning theories focus on the effects of thought on action and of action on thought. The difference between these two is that behavior learning theories focus on behavior, changes and behavior and consequences of behavior while social learning focus on actions and how/why they are made.
1. How are all four examples (p.100) learning? What is the problem you will face as a teacher in regards to student learning?
All four examples are learning, in the first one the dog learns to salivate because of food, in the second the dog learns the sound of the bell, in the third the dog associates the bell with the food, the fourth is when he notices that the bell means food so he salivates without the sight of food.
2. Read and define the key terms coined by Pavlov as he studied Classical Conditioning and the digestive system of dogs. (unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, neutral stimulus, conditioned stimulus, classical conditioning). What is the bell considered in Pavlov’s experiment?
Unconditioned stimulus – is something that happens naturally when a stimulus is presented
Unconditioned response – a natural response when a stimulus is presented
Neutral stimulus – does not have an effect
Conditioned stimulus – a desired action that has been created when the stimulus is presented
Classical conditioning – the process of unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, neutral stimulus and conditioned stimulus in order.
The bell is considered a neutral stimulus and then conditioned stimulus.
4. What is Skinner's theory of Operant Conditioning?
A method of learning the occurs through rewards and punishments.
5. What is a primary and secondary reinforcer?
Primary reinforcers are biological, food and drink. Secondary reinforcers are needs that are not directly needed to live, but help with living.
6. What is a positive and negative reinforcer?
A positive reinforcer is adding a stimulus. A negative reinforcer is taking something away.
7. What is the Premack Principle, sometimes called “Grandma’s Rule?”
Premack's principle, or the relativity theory of reinforcement, states that more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors.
8. What is your favorite Practical Reinforcer in the shaded box that has teacher ideas?
I like grades and recognition.
9. Describe Punishers and Consequences. Write down an example of a punisher and consequence shaped you as a child.
Punishers are consequences that weaken behavior. Consequences are results of behaviors. One punisher I hated was getting my phone taken away.
10. How can teachers use Shaping and Extinction successfully in the classroom?
I can use shaping and extinction successfully in the classroom by using reinforcers and giving attention to desired behaviors.
11. What are the differences between Fixed Ratio and Variable Ratio of reinforcement? What is best for teachers to use in the classroom?
Fixed ratio is based on times a student does time thing, every 5 correct answers they get a sticker. Variable ratio is like the lottery, the reward is given randomly.
12. What have you seen or experienced in the classroom? Cueing, Discrimination, Generalization
I have seen discrimination in the classroom. Students in a class I was working in who were African American were being treated differently than other students. An aid noticed it and said something and the teacher was removed from the class.
13. Bandura introduced the idea of “modeling” and vicarious learning to educators. What are the four phases of “observational learning?”
1 Attention phase
2 Retention phase
3 Reproduction phase
4 Motivational phase
14. Describe Vicarious Learning and Self-Regulated Learning
Vicarious Learning is when one learns from watching others. Selfregulation is when learners transform their mental abilities into academic skills.