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Chapter 3: Concepts and Dynamics of Leadership Discussion Questions

1. Create a definition of leadership.

a. Leadership is being confident in one’s own abilities to motivate and guide a group towards a common goal.

2. Why is the study of leadership difficult?

a. There are no set characteristics or guidelines on how to have good leadership skills. Most people define leadership as:

i. A trait

ii. The focus of group process

iii. The art of inducing compliance

iv. The ability to influence or motivate

v. A behavior or act

vi. A form of persuasion

vii. A power relationship

viii. An instrument or process for goal attainment ix. An effective interaction

x. A differentiated role (Ortmeier, Meese, 2010, pg. 41).

b. All theses definitions have vast variations and are hard to form into one firm definition of leadership.

3. Compare and contrast leadership with management.

a. Leadership always involves (leading) a group of people, whereas management responsibilities with things for example IT, money, advertising, equipment and promises (leadership vs. management).

b. Management involves directing people toward organization goals.

c. Management follows leadership

4. Early approaches to the study of leadership focused on leadership traits or qualities while more recent approaches address leadership competences? Should leadership traits be discounted in favor of leadership competencies? Explain.

a. Leadership competencies are leadership skills and behaviors that contribute to superior performance. Leadership traits are still important and should not be discounted in favor of leadership. Both leadership competencies and qualities are important. Some examples are:

i. Active listening

ii. Education

iii. Attention to detail

iv. Directions

v. Evolution

vi. Resourcefulness

vii. Service

viii. Humor

ix. Integrity

5. Review the theories of leadership presented in this chapter. Can one best theory be identified as applicable in all leadership scenarios? Explain.

a. There are about as many leadership theories as there are theorists to describe the leadership phenomenon.

i. Leadership-centered theories

1. Trait theories

2. Behavioral theories

3. Personal- Situational theory

4. Interaction- Expectation theory ii. Follower and context- centered Theories

1. Contingency Theory

2. Situational theory

3. Path-goal theory

iii. Leader-Follower Interactions- Centered Theories

1. Leader- Follower (Member) Exchange Theory

2. Transformational Theory

3. The Psychodynamic approach

b. Leader-follower exchange theory represents a departure from theories that focus on what leaders do toward their followers. Early research focused on the vertical linkages (relationships) of leaders and followers. Current research focuses on how leader-follower relationships can be used for leadership development.

c. Leadership-follower exchange theory makes relationship the focus point of a leadership process in which effective communication is critical.

Case Study Questions:

1. What leadership challenges face an outsider who is appointed to head a police agency?

a. Leadership- follower relationship. It is hard for a new leader to come into a group and start leading when the team does not know or trust the new leader. A bond needs to be formed in order for these relationships to work.

2. Can a person without police experience manage a police agency effectively?

a. Yes and no. Someone without experience is not going to receive respect from the police agency while some one with will have respect from fellow officers. On the other hand, a person without experience may have a better hand on management than one with experience it is not a mandatory requirement.

3. Can a person without police experience lead a police agency?

a. No in a career such as policing officers must learn from experience and follow in the footsteps of great leaders. I believe experience is needed to lead a police agency. A leader leads its troops in to battle. So a leader works alongside his group.

4. What leadership skills should the chief executive of a police agency possess and demonstrate?

a. Good communication skills

b. Teachable

c. Potential

d. Good character

e. Reliability


§ Ortmeier, P. J., & Meese, E. (2010). Leadership, ethics, and policing: Challenges for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

§ Leadership vs. management. (n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2021, from

§ Schafer, J. (2009, May 29). Developing effective leadership in policing: Perils, pitfalls, and paths forward. Retrieved February 13, 2021, from src=recsys&fullSc=1

§ Traits that make good police leaders: Identify leadership potential during recruit selection. (2019, August 20). Retrieved February 13, 2021, from

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