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CHAPTER 14—NEW ENCOUNTERS: THE CREATION OF A WORLD MARKET


1. Describe the most important voyages of exploration undertaken by Europeans during the 16th and 17th centuries.


2. What factors made control of the Indian Ocean difficult for the Portuguese during the 16th and 17th centuries?


3. What were/are the pros and cons of European discoveries and conquests of the Americas? How do historians view this process in a wider context?


4. Is morality a good measure for historical phenomena¾why or why not? Explain your position with concrete examples.


5. What geographical advantages did Western Europe have in their encounters with the non-Western world in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?


6. How did technological advancements, the rise of stronger governments, and economic growth cause European societies to become involved in maritime expansion in the 1400s and 1500s? Why then?


7. Compare and contrast the causes and consequences of the voyages of Zhenghe with those of Columbus.


8. Discuss the European impact, positive and negative, on the native populations of Southeast Asia.


9. How did Spanish methods of dealing with their new territories in America affect the native populations there?


10. Compare and contrast slavery in Africa before the sixteenth century to African slavery after the arrival of the Europeans. What are the continuities, if any, and what are the differences?


11. How, and to what extent, did the arrival of Europeans influence the scope and conduct of the spice trade?


12. Compare and contrast the impact of the European colonial nations in the Americas with the impact of the West in Southeast Asia. What are the similarities and what are the differences?


13. Why was it Western Europe rather than China, the Muslim world, or some other non-Western society who effected the globalization era of the sixteenth century?


14. Did "globalization" really begin in the sixteenth century? Why and/or why not? Give specific examples.


15. What were the possible factors that allowed some non-western societies to resist or cope with the arrival of Westerners better than others? Give examples.


16. How did the arrival of Islam change the previously Buddhist and Hindu societies of Southeast Asia?



SHORT ANSWER


Instructions: Identify the following term(s).


17. Paramesvara


18. Malacca


19. Prince Henry the Navigator


20. Vasco da Gama


21. "Christians and spices"


22. Marco Polo's Travels


23. Mestizos


24. Mulatto


25. Creole


26. The Tears of the Indians


27. Columbian Exchange


28. Bali and Hinduism


29. Songhai


30. Timbuktu


31. Leo Africanus


32. Zhenghe


33. "God, glory, and gold"


34. stern-post rudder, compass, and astrolabe


35. conquistador


36. portolani


37. the Gold Coast


38. Calicut


39. Afonso da Albuquerque


40. Christopher Columbus


41. Hispaniola



42. Pedro Cabral


43. John Cabot


44. Treaty of Tordesillas


45. Amerigo Vespucci


46. Hernan Cortes


47. Moctezuma


48. Francisco Pizzaro


49. encomienda system


50. Bartolome de Las Casas


51. Ferdinand Magellan


52. British East India Company


53. Dutch West India Company and Dutch East India Company


54. the VOC


55. New Netherlands


56. Massachusetts Bay Company


57. Cape of Good Hope


58. Kilwa, Sofala, and Mombasa


59. Mwene Metapa


60. Boers


61. Afrikaans


62. Bantus


63. Slave trade (entrepots and scale)


64. cane culture in America


65. "white people's diseases"


66. Middle Passage


67. the Slave Coast



68. Batavia


69. Thai and Angkor


70. Theravada Buddhism


71. Javanese and Islamic kingship models


MULTIPLE CHOICE


72. By the early 1400s a growing percentage of the Asian spice trade was being transported

a.

by camel caravans across Arabia.

b.

in European ships, particularly Dutch and Portuguese.

c.

in Muslim ships.

d.

in Chinese ships as evidenced by the voyages of Zheng He.

e.

across the Silk Road from China.



ANS: C REF: p. 353


73. One of the earliest West African states to become Muslim was

a.

the Zanj.

b.

Zimbabwe.

c.

Axum.

d.

Mali.

e.

Kush.



ANS: D REF: p. 356


74. What was the name of the last great state to occupy the Niger River region in Africa prior to European arrival in the region?

a.

Songhai

b.

Mali

c.

Ghana

d.

Kush

e.

Zimbabwe



ANS: A REF: p. 353


75. After its founding in the 12th century, the city of ____ became a great center of learning and trade in the Niger River region.

a.

Alexandria

b.

Kilwa

c.

Timbuktu

d.

Dakar

e.

Niger



ANS: C REF: p. 358





76. Europeans embarked on expansionist voyages for all of the following reasons except

a.

there was a potential for economic gain through increased world trade.

b.

some desired to spread Christianity to other parts of the world.

c.

they had developed confidence from improved cartography, navigational methods, and ship designs.

d.

fear than Islam would occupy the rest of the world if Christendom did not.

e.

knowledge of wind patterns in the Atlantic Ocean.



ANS: D REF: p. 357


77. Prince Henry

a.

was the first European to get to the source of the Zambezi.

b.

established a school for naval gunners in Portsmouth, England in 1438.

c.

was depicted as the "epitome" of greed by Bartolomeu Dias.

d.

established a school for navigators in Portugal in 1419.

e.

became king of England in 1628.



ANS: D REF: p. 357 | p. 359


78. An influential cargo brought back to Portugal from the West African coastal voyages in 1441 was

a.

silver.

b.

gold.

c.

slaves.

d.

spices.

e.

ivory.



ANS: C REF: p. 359


79. The Cape of Good Hope was rounded in 1487 by

a.

Abram Voorhies.

b.

Vasco da Gama.

c.

Ferdinand Magellan.

d.

Bartolomeu Dias.

e.

Henry the Navigator.



ANS: D REF: p. 359


80. The Portuguese leaders who first landed at Calicut and seized the port of Malacca were, respectively,

a.

Jaime Cardose and Pedro Martinez Munoa.

b.

Ferdinando Colan and Alhambra da Fonseca.

c.

Vasco da Gama and Afonso de Albuquerque.

d.

Henry da Bruscia and Eduardo da Estabano.

e.

Juan Montillo and Jorge Sikada Maio.



ANS: C REF: p. 359-360


81. Where did the primary threat to Portuguese control of Southeast Asia come from?

a.

adverse climatic conditions

b.

disease

c.

the Portuguese

d.

the English and the Dutch

e.

established native kingdoms



ANS: D REF: p. 358


82. Christopher Columbus

a.

was an escaped criminal from Munich when he sailed to the Americas.

b.

was of Genoese origin, although he gained fame in the service of the Portuguese king.

c.

was the brother of Hessin Cortes.

d.

converted to Islam on his forty-third birthday.

e.

believed that Asia was larger, and closer to Europe by water, than people then thought.



ANS: E REF: p. 362


83. Which of the following is not true concerning European forays into the New World?

a.

Christopher Columbus never sailed into Chesapeake Bay.

b.

John Cabot explored the coast of New England on a voyage sponsored by Henry VII.

c.

Christopher Columbus explored along the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula.

d.

Pedro Cabral discovered South America by accident.

e.

Vespucci's many published letters describing the geography of the New World caused people to call the area America.



ANS: C REF: p. 362


84. The Treaty of Tordesillas

a.

divided the "new" areas discovered by Europeans between the English and the French.

b.

divided the "new" areas discovered by Europeans between Spain and Portugal.

c.

gave the English the eastern route around the Cape of Good Hope.

d.

gave the French the eastern route around the Cape of Good Hope.

e.

ended the Hundred Years War.



ANS: B REF: p. 361


85. Which of the following accurately pairs Spanish conquistadors with the New World empires they destroyed?

a.

Pizarro and the Aztecs; de Soto and the Incas.

b.

Magellan and the Incas; Albuquerque and the Iroquois.

c.

Cortés and the Aztecs; Pizarro and the Incas.

d.

de Soto and the Aztecs; Cortés and the Incas.

e.

de Soto and the Incas; Cortés and the Aztecs.



ANS: C REF: p. 362


86. Which South American country today has Portuguese as its national language, reflecting its colonial history?

a.

Argentina

b.

Panama

c.

Chile

d.

Brazil

e.

Venezuela



ANS: D REF: p. 362








87. Under the encomienda system, New World natives were

a.

forced to accept Islam.

b.

permitted to retain control over their local lands.

c.

subjected to exploitation and harsh treatment by the Dutch.

d.

supposed to be protected by the Spanish.

e.

taken to Spain to be used as laborers.



ANS: D REF: p. 365


88. As a result of the publications of Bartolomé de Las Casas

a.

Amerindian rights were recognized and respected.

b.

the encomienda system was established.

c.

Amerindians became more maltreated than before.

d.

the Spanish government was more attentive to the needs of the native populations.

e.

a new route to the Indies was discovered.



ANS: D REF: p. 365-366


89. What were American-born descendants of Europeans called?

a.

Creoles

b.

Mestizos

c.

Mulattos

d.

Moranos

e.

according to their European nationality



ANS: A REF: p. 363


90. Portuguese control of the spice trade was ended by

a.

Muslim attacks from Delhi.

b.

the circumnavigating voyage of Balboa.

c.

the establishment of the British and Dutch East India Companies.

d.

rival Hindu merchants from the Ganges plain.

e.

a new outbreak of the Black Death.



ANS: C REF: p. 361


91. All of the following were part of the Columbian Exchange except

a.

cows and horses were introduced into the Western hemisphere.

b.

potatoes and corn were introduced into Europe from the Americas.

c.

potatoes and corn were introduced into the Americas from Europe.

d.

smallpox arrived in the Americas from Europe.

e.

gunpowder and guns were introduced into the Americas from Europe.



ANS: C REF: p. 368


92. The Dutch and Portuguese

a.

worked together in Southeast Asia to counter the strength of the French and the Danes.

b.

tried to induce the inhabitants of areas under their control to accept Islam, and thus make them easier to control.

c.

played no part in European trade with Africa.

d.

jointly administered Brazil until after 1750.

e.

were bitter trade rivals in Southeast Asia until the Dutch won out.



ANS: E REF: p. 361


93. Which of the following accurately describes European colonial development in the New World?

a.

The Dutch took New York from the English and changed its name to New Netherlands, and later the English lost some of their Canadian holdings to the French.

b.

The English took New Netherlands from the French and changed its name to New York, and later the Dutch lost some of their Canadian holdings to the French.

c.

The English took New Netherlands from the Dutch and changed its name to New York, and later the French lost most of their Canadian holdings to the English.

d.

The French took New York from the Dutch and changed its name to New France, and later the Dutch lost some of their Canadian holdings to the English.

e.

The Bishop of Rome took Brazil from Portugal and returned it to Spain.



ANS: C REF: p. 361


94. Developments that helped Europeans expand their influence on the oceans included all except

a.

the development of portolani.

b.

the acquisition of the Chinese sternpost rudder.

c.

a combination of lateen sails with square rigging and the ability to build ever larger and more mobile ships.

d.

the construction of gigantic ships, even larger than those employed by the Ming's Zhenghe.

e.

recent naval experience on the high seas.



ANS: D REF: p. 357-359


95. All of the following are true about European contacts with Africa except that

a.

most peoples in the African interior were little influenced by Europeans in the 1500s.

b.

the Portuguese took over the gold trade from Mwene Metapa in East African.

c.

the Dutch established a colony at Capetown to supply its ships headed for the Spice Islands.

d.

the Boers were responsible for keeping other Europeans away from the Cape of Good Hope.

e.

England established a colony at Zimbabwe in the late 1600s.



ANS: E REF: p. 369


96. Which of the following was the most important reason for the massive growth of the African slave trade in the sixteenth century?

a.

the need to supply the mines of Peru with an abundant labor force

b.

the desire to develop the tobacco plantations of the New World

c.

intense labor needs created by the development of sugar growing in the New World

d.

the enormous growth in the African birth rate

e.

the European ability to obtain slaves in many West African areas



ANS: C REF: p. 369











97. The African slave trade

a.

was fundamentally altered by the French in the late 1400s.

b.

involved the forcible movement of possibly more than twelve million African slaves overseas.

c.

involved the deaths of less than one percent of those leaving West African ports before they arrived at a new home in the Americas.

d.

began practices never before seen in Africa.

e.

solved the labor shortage challenge in European agriculture.



ANS: B REF: p. 370


98. Which of the following most accurately depicts life expectancy in the sixteenth century?

a.

Europeans' chances of living longer improved if they did not go to Africa or the West Indies.

b.

A European stood a better chance of living much longer in Africa than in the West Indies.

c.

Africans who survived the voyage from their homeland had a shorter life expectancy in the West Indies than Europeans who went there.

d.

The slave's voyage from Africa to the New World was unrelated to his or her mortality.

e.

Africans rarely survived for one year if exposed to the dampness and cold of Europe.



ANS: A REF: p. 370


99. As a result of European expansion into Africa,

a.

the Mwene Metapa was entirely eliminated by the Portuguese.

b.

the economic conditions of the continent were unaltered.

c.

North African political regimes were toppled by French forces.

d.

internal conflict among native African groups was intensified.

e.

most Africans became wealthier.



ANS: D REF: p. 372


100. Slavery for Africans

a.

originated with the massive trans-Atlantic slave trade

b.

originated with the introduction of Islam to the continent

c.

was the consequence of European colonialism

d.

had always been part of the continent's societies and cultures

e.

resulted from the Asia-Africa trade



ANS: D REF: p. 373


101. Dutch colonial efforts were

a.

incredibly unsuccessful, as their huge expenditures did not produce a single profitable colony.

b.

ended by superior Portuguese power in North America before 1700.

c.

weakened by their principled refusal to take part in the slave trade.

d.

highly successful in Southeast Asia, and particularly on the island of Java.

e.

most economically profitable in New Amsterdam.



ANS: D REF: p. 374-375






102. The European power that emerged triumphant in the Indonesian archipelago, and took over virtually the entire region by the end of the eighteenth century, was

a.

Spain.

b.

France.

c.

the Netherlands.

d.

Britain.

e.

Portugal.



ANS: C REF: p. 375


103. Southeast Asia, by the 1700s,

a.

was rigidly controlled by Europeans, with the French in control of Vietnam and the Portuguese elsewhere.

b.

had seen Islamic influence driven from the region by the joint French-Dutch "light" campaign.

c.

saw Islamic influence spread from the Malay Peninsula to the northern coasts of Sumatra and Java.