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Chapter 13- Civil Rights Movement Answers

Why were "separate but equal" schools often unfair to African Americans?

They were in poor condition and did not have proper funding.

Prior to 1950, the NAACP focused its legal efforts on which issue?

Ending segregation in public graduate and professional schools

The case of McLaurin v. Oklahoma (1950) is an example of

early NAACP victories in the legal fight to end segregation in public education.

Which statement(s) below did Thurgood Marshall use to argue against segregation of public schools in Brown v. Board of Education?

It denied African Americans equal protection of the law. It made African American children feel inferior.

Which statement about the ruling in Brown v. Board of Education is true?

It did not address the question of how or when desegregation should take place.

Governor Orval Faubus is associated with which of the following?

the integration of Little Rock Central High School

When African American students first arrived at Central High School in Little Rock, they

were turned away by members of the Arkansas National Guard.

What happened when Governor Faubus removed his Arkansas National Guard troops and allowed the police to protect the African American students at the high school?

The police quickly lost control of the white mob, and the students fled.

Integration of the high school in Little Rock finally happened when

President Eisenhower sent federal troops to protect the students.

Which statement best describes how Branch Rickey and Jackie Robinson affected American culture?

They showed the country that integration could be successful.

What was one effect of Jackie Robinson's joining Major League Baseball?

Other minorities began to play professional baseball.

Executive Order 8802 integrated

the defense industry.

Which legal case forced the University of Maryland to admit an African American student to its law school?

Murray v. Pearson

Who worked against Truman's efforts to desegregate the military?

Southern Democrats

In this period of power politics, nothing counts but pressure, and still more pressure, through the tactic and strategy of broad, organized, aggressive mass action behind the vital and important issues of the Negro. -A. Philip Randolph, 1940 Based on the quotation, Randolph would most likely consider the best strategy for integrating the armed forces to be

organizing to pressure politicians.

The first African American player in Major League Baseball was

Jackie Robinson.

Why did Major League Baseball owners support segregation by 1890?

They feared that white audiences would not pay to watch African American players.

Jackie Robinson's success in Major League Baseball encouraged white Americans to

change their views about minorities.

Which best describes the US armed forces during World War II?


The unanimous opinion in Brown v. Board of Education was written by

Earl Warren.

The governor of Arkansas who used National Guard troops to fight integration at Central High School in Little Rock was

Orval Faubus.

Why did Thurgood Marshall cite the Fourteenth Amendment to argue that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional?

The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees equal protection under the law.

The area of the United States that was most affected by Brown v. Board of Education was

the South.

Which became a new focus for the NAACP after 1950?

ending segregation in public education

In his arguments in Brown v. Board of Education, the lawyer for Linda Brown claimed that "separate but equal" public schools were

separate but not truly equal.

Which best describes how the Supreme Court voted in Brown v. Board of Education?

The court voted to end segregation.

An argument made by Thurgood Marshall that helped shape the Brown v. Board of Education decision was that

separate facilities are unequal and make African American children feel inferior.

Which best describes how the Supreme Court plan for desegregation was implemented?

It was slow and difficult.

Who declared that organized resistance by Southern states would prevent racial integration in the South?

Harry Flood Byrd

Which word best describes the response of the public to the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church on September 15, 1963?


Which best explains why many African Americans had not registered to vote by the 1960s?

They were intimidated by violent threats and actions.

A civil rights activist who was shot and killed because of his efforts to register African American voters was

Medgar Evers.

Why did Governor Wallace resist enrolling African Americans in the University of Alabama?

He thought integration was a states' rights issue.

On a national level, the American public was ..................... the violence faced by the civil rights protestors in Birmingham.


Which was the result of a bomb that exploded at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham?

Four young girls were killed.

Which occurred after James Meredith won the right to legally attend the University of Mississippi?

The governor and university officials blocked him from enrolling.

How were the initial sit-ins during the Birmingham Campaign of 1963 received?

Many people paid little attention to them.

Eugene "Bull" Connor, the commissioner of public safety in Birmingham in the 1960s,

led a violent crackdown on civil rights protests.

What did Martin Luther King Jr. do as a call for action in Birmingham in 1963?

He wrote a letter describing the violence African Americans faced.

During the first Selma voting rights march on March 7, 1965,

marchers were attacked by police as they crossed a bridge.

The first draft of the Civil Rights Act was proposed by

John F. Kennedy.

A result of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was that

as African American registration increased, the number of African Americans elected increased.

The Civil Rights Act that passed in 1964

was stronger than the first draft of the act.

How did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 stop discrimination in areas where voter eligibility tests were previously used?

It required federal supervision.

The governor of Alabama during the Selma voting rights marches was

George Wallace.

Literacy tests were banned by

the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

When he suggested that change should be brought about "by any means necessary," Malcolm X was

promoting violence to achieve civil rights goals.

After Huey Newton went to jail in 1967, the Black Panther Party

promoted the use of violence as an option.

Which event signaled a directional change for the SNCC?

the rise of Stokely Carmichael to leader of the SNCC in 1966

How did the Black Power movement change the civil rights movement?

It discouraged alliances with supportive and sympathetic whites.

A cause of frustration about racism in the United States during the 1960s was that

segregation continued despite the passage of laws to eliminate it.

Why were the Detroit Riots of 1967 significant?

Many people died and were injured during the riots.

Which leader of the SNCC promoted Black Power?

Stokely Carmichael

The Black Panther Party believed that

African Americans were responsible for solving their own problems.

Malcolm X's legacy in the civil rights movement includes the idea that African Americans

could control their situation.

The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense was formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and

Bobby Seale.

The internment of Japanese Americans resulted in

forced relocation.

In 1882, a US law prohibited all immigration from


Before becoming a leader for farm workers' rights, Cesar Chavez was

a community organizer.

In 1969, protesters for American Indian rights occupied

Alcatraz Island.

How did the United Farm Workers raise awareness about the plight of migrant workers during the 1960s?

by staging boycotts

Why was Wounded Knee, South Dakota, an important place for American Indians?

It was the site of a massacre by US troops in 1890.

One important result of the American Indian occupation in 1969 was that

it informed the public about the need for American Indians' civil rights.

Which phrase best describes Cesar Chavez?

a cofounder of the United Farm Workers

Which ethnic group fought for immigration policy reform during the 1960s?

Mexican Americans

The occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, in 1973 was led by

Russell Means.

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