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BIOL 164 - Final Exam Answers to all questions

Part XV. 46 points. In the answer blank, put the word or phrase that best matches the description or answers the question. It is possible for two questions to have the same answer.

1. Physiology_____________


The branch of biological science that studies and describes how body parts work and function

2. homeostasis____________ __________

The tendency of the body systems to maintain a relatively balanced or constant internal environment even when outside conditions change

3. metabolism_____________ _________

The term that includes all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body

4. saggital


If an incision cuts the heart into right and left parts, the section is a this kind of section

5. amino acids


Monomers that are the building blocks of proteins

6. interstitial fluid 7. ______________________

The fluid, similar to seawater, that surrounds and bathes all body cells

8. mitosis________________ ______

The process by which the nucleus divides into to exactly identical copies

9. epithelium_____________ _________

Type of tissue that forms mucus, serous, and epidermal membranes

10. nervous


Type of tissue that transmits information as electrochemical impulses

11. connective


Type of tissue that supports, packages, and protects body organs

12. muscle______


The major function of the cells of this tissue type is to shorten

13. third degree burn


Full-thickness burn; epidermal and dermal layers destroyed; skin blanched; no pain, because nerve endings are destroyed

14. Malignant


15. _____________


Deadly cancer of pigment producing cells; getting more common every year

16. marrow


Site of hematopoiesis in the bones

17. osteoclast


Bone cells that liquefy bone matrix and release calcium into the blood

18. greenstick


Type of fracture common in children; bone splinters, but break is incomplete

19. ulna_________


Forearm bone involved in formation of elbow joint

20. synergist


A muscle that stabilizes a joint so that a prime mover can act at more distal joints

21. antagonist


A muscle that reverses and/or opposes the action of a prime mover

22. flexion______


Movement along the sagittal plane that decreases the angle between two bones

23. adduction_____


Moving the limbs nearing the body midline; coming to attention

24. abduction


Moving the hand into the anatomical position

25. planter flexion


Movement of the superior aspect of the foot toward the leg; standing on one’s heels

26. rectus femoris


Muscle group that extends the thigh and flexes the knee

27. Schwann cells

Specialized cells that myelinate the fibers of neurons found in the PNS


28. synapse


Junction or point of close contact between neurons

29. dura mater


Outermost covering of the brain composed of tough fibrous connective tissue

30. hydrocephal



Abnormal condition caused by blockage of the normal drainage of cerebrospinal fluid; results in increased pressure on the brain

31. vagus_______


The cranial nerve involved in stimulating the mobility of the digestive tract, controlling the heart beat, and regulating breathing

32. vestibulococ

hlear__________________ ____

The cranial nerve involved in listening to music and feeling seasick

33. Parasympath etic___________________ ___

The division of the autonomic nervous system that is normally in control

34. cataract_____


Clouding of the lens, resulting in loss of sight

35. kidney


Endocrine organ that secretes mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids

36. parathyroid


Most important hormone involved in regulating the amount of calcium circulation in the blood; released when blood calcium levels drop

37. glucocorticoi


Hormone that helps to protect the body during long term stressful situations such as extended illness and injury

38. catecholami



Short-term stress hormone; aids in flight-or-fight response; increases blood pressure and heart rate

39. ACTH_______


When produced in inadequate amounts, this hormone causes excessive urination without high blood glucose levels, dehydration, and tremendous thirst

40. Thyroxine___


When produced in excessive amounts, this hormone causes bulging eyeballs, nervousness, increased pulse rate, weight loss (Grave's disease)

41. portal_______


Large vein that carries nutrient-rich blood from the digestive organs to the liver for processing

42. high________


Blood pressure during heart contraction

43. passive_____


Type of immunity acquired when a person receives Sabin polio vaccine

44. Acquired


Type of immunity acquired when antibodies migrate from the mother through the placenta into the vascular system of the fetus

45. dendritic


Type of lymphocyte that binds with, and releases, chemicals that activate B-cells, T cells, and macrophages

46. Cytokines___


A protein released by macrophages and activated T cells that helps to protect other body cells from viral replication

47. allergy______


Disorder in which the immune system mounts an extraordinarily vigorous response to an otherwise

harmless antigen; eczema is an example

48. auto immune


The body's own immune system produces this type of disorder; a breakdown of self tolerance; multiple sclerosis is an example

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