Assignment 1: The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid
Use the Internet to research one (1) developing nation of your choice. Your research should include an examination of the effects that war and peace have on the distribution of foreign aid, as well as the material covered by the Webtext and lectures in Weeks 1 through 3.
Write a three to four (3-4) page research paper in which you:
Assess the positive and negative effects that peace and war, respectively, have on the distribution of foreign aid in the developing country that you have selected. Support your response with concrete examples of each of the results that you have cited.
Analyze the specific actions that the leadership of the selected country has taken, through the use of its foreign aid from donor nations and international lending institutions, to relieve the severe problems caused by warfare.
Discuss whether or not the extension of foreign aid has successfully reduced poverty and the incidence of warfare in the selected country. Support your response with examples.
Use at least five (5) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia, blogs, and other nonacademic websites do not qualify as academic resources. Approval of resources is at the instructor's discretion. Resources must also be within the last seven (7) years.
Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid: A Case Study of Somalia
Foreign aid flows from developed countries to developing countries. Its Foreign aid, the international transfer of capital, goods, or services from a country or international organization for the benefit of the recipient country or its population. Aid can be economic, military, or emergency humanitarian (e.g., aid given following natural disasters), encyclopedia Britannica, (2016). Foreign aid comes in many forms, it involves the transfer of financial resources or commodities, such as military assistance and food. This international aid can also be in the form grants or concessional credits such as export credits. The commonest form of this foreign aid is the official development aid (ODA).
The scourge of war especially in developing countries leaves an ugly scar on the mother nation. There is widespread suffering of people especially children and women. In the event of war, people are killed, wounded, mass eviction and limitation of basic food supplies. These in humane and intolerable conditions, attract and gunner international sympathy. Therefore friendly donor nations and international money lending institutions give the much needed aid and human assistance in the form of foreign aid. Periods of calm and profound peace in developing countries also differently affect the distribution of foreign aid by donor countries and international money lending institutions.
Periods of peace and war in developing countries have considerable impacts on the acquisition, distribution and use if the foreign aid. In most instances of wars, international organizations such as the United Nations and World Bank administer foreign aid in form of food, humanitarian assistance and military intervention.
The unilitaranian aspect of both war and peace, influence the attraction and distribution of foreign aid among the sub Saharan developing countries (Anderson 1999).To aid on this research essay on the effects of foreign aid in developing countries, we are going to pick Somalia, a country rocked by years of civil unrest due to inter clan conflicts and the eminent terrorism threat in the area.
This paper therefore seeks to critically analyze and evaluate the positive and negative effects of war on the distribution of foreign aid in Somalia. The paper also seeks inform on the specific actions taken by leadership through the use of foreign aid from donor countries and international money lending institutions to eliminate the pertinent problem the country faces as a result of war and the paper will also discuss if the foreign aid given to has reduced poverty and incidence of warfare
Positive and negative effects of war on the distribution of foreign aid in Somalia
The civil unrest in Somalia in the early 1990s, radically shaped and influenced the distribution of foreign aid in Somalia both positively and negatively.as a result of the war, major ethical and technical standards in humanitarian relief reforms and provided a conceptual framework of guidance on limiting harm. These standards and reforms have been adopted by humanitarian agencies up to date and help formulation of foreign aid policies.
The war also leads to the much needed structural reforms in the country. Foreign aid has certain conditions attached to it. The recipients of the donor aid need to stick by the conditions attached to the financial aid in order to be in the good grace of the donors. Through the Somali war of 1990, certain structructural reforms were instituted on the Somali government. Through the war, a peace deal was brokered to form a federal government in return of foreign aid in terms of humanitarian assistance and military intervention.
Through the war, humanitarian agencies set base all over Somalia to provide the much needed humanitarian assistance. With the post war escalating drought and widespread human suffering, humanitarian agencies were established receiving funding from international organizations such as World Bank, International Monitory Fund and the United Nations. These agencies provided relief food and medical assistance to large suffering Somalia population.
Despite the war bringing all these positive effects and influencing the distribution of foreign aid, it had major setbacks to the country’s development. There is considerable evidence to show that humanitarian agencies used funds from international donors to fund factional warlords spread their propaganda in return of protection and access in running their operations (Anderson 1999)
Foreign aid has also been castigated for fueling corruption and underhand dealings in the Somalia Republic. Humanitarian agency officials collude with the local government officials in Somalia to divert relief food and medical supplies. Cronyism and misuse of power is also very rampant within the humanitarian agencies operating in Somalia.
Through foreign aid, most humanitarian agencies have been playing politics. The agencies are politicized to adopt the core principles of the donors such as fighting terrorism and disregarding their mandate of offering humanitarian help leaving many people to suffer. Humanitarian agencies have also been blamed for not upholding measures to eradicate the war as long as they perform their mandated task, they give a blind eye to everything else happening in the country.
Actions taken by leadership to eliminate the problems caused by war
Both the Somalia leadership and foreign aid donors and organizations leaderships have adopted measures to ensure that the foreign aid is used as stipulated to eliminate the stated problems and that no misuse or diversion of the funds into other projects.
When pledging for the foreign aid, the Somalia government was subjected to various declaration by the donor countries and organizations. These declarations were in the country’s best interest to eliminate the post war problems and help form a new state. The specific actions included immediate cease of interclan wars, eradication of all warlords and factional groups in Somalia and strive to form a federal government. Other promises imposed on these declarations, are concerns regarding democratic progress, respect for human rights and freedoms as well as good governance.
Impact of foreign aid in reducing poverty and warfare
However, foreign aid been directed to reduce poverty and incidences of warfare in Somalia, that has not been the case. In fact the opposite is true. Through foreign aid, the poverty levels among the people and conflicts have escalated. By corrupt humanitarian and government officials colluding with warlords and pressure groups and funding them to spread propaganda so the agencies can continue with their operations undisturbed, incidences of war have increased and inflation causing sky rocketing of food prices as relief food is diverted by corrupt officials hence leading to unimaginable poverty. (Collier & Hoeffler, 2004)
In conclusion, in order to enhance efficiency in foreign aid distribution, donor countries should impose strict measures for countries pledging for the aid. This go a long away in ensuring peace and democracy and also eradicating the poverty and incidences of war.
Anderson, M. B. (1999). Do no harm: how aid can support peace-or war. Lynne Rienner
Arne B. & Jörgen L., (2008) Growth, Income distribution and Poverty. A reviewof United
Nations University. Wider Discussion Paper
Collier, P., & Hoeffler, A. (2004). Aid, policy and growth in post-conflict societies. European
Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from www.britannica.com