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Architecture Exam Study Guide

Graphic representation has developed along what two distinct lines

artistic technical

a graphical representation of a real thing, an idea, or a proposal design for later manufacture or construction


standard guide to uniform drafting standards


systematic approach that integrates design and manufacture of products with the goal of optimizing all elements involved in the life cycle of the product

concurrent engineering

What does CAD stand for?

computer aided design

Design Process Stages


three purposes of technical drawings

visualization, documentation, communication

design products based on existing designs through measurements and documentation of an existing product

reversed engineering

if the observers eye is imagines as infinitely distant from the object and the plane of projection, the projectors will be?


What is the mother of all inventions?


Which standards organization is the primary authority related to technical drawings?


If the observer is relatively close to the object and the projectors form a "cone" of projectors, the resulting projection is known as..


line that is solid, dark, sharp, and thick

visible line

when the projectors come together at the station pint and represent objects as we see them

perspective projections

primary metric units of measurement for engineering drawings and design


two main types of projection

perspective and parallel

reduction or enlargement of the drawn object relative to the real object

drawing scale

standard C size sheet measures

17 x 22

T/F: the U.S. uses the metric system of measurement which consists of meters and kilometers


what categories does the title block include?

company info, drawing scale, sheet size,

A scale stated as 5:1 signifies that...

the object is drawn five times larger than the actual size

term meaning normal/ 90 degrees


line that is dashed, dark, and thin

hidden line

type of line that shows the axis of symmetry, path of motion, and location of bolt circles

center line

units based on inch-foot and yard measurements

US customary units

construction lines are drawn with what kind of lead


line that is solid, light, and thin

construction line

T/F: orthographic projections have projectors that are parallel to the plane of projection


the shortest distance between two points

straight line

supplementary angles add up to

180 degrees

what four objects should a student try to attain when drawing

accuracy, speed, legibility, neatness

represents a location in space and has no width, height, or depth


formed when two surfaces intersect

edge of a solid

complementary angles add up to

90 degrees

37 degrees 10' 22" converts to how many degrees

37.1728 (37.(10/60)+(22/360)

formed where three or more surfaces intersect


equation for circumferance of a circle

diameter x 3.1416 2x radius x 3.1416

most important rule in freehand sketching

keep the sketch proportional

any plane bounded by straight sides and can be inscribed or circumscribed around a circle


T/F: a freehand sketch is crude and sloppy with no real attention to detail and is only used to get ideas down on paper


sum of the interior angles of a triangle adds up to

180 degrees

objects that share the same center, axis, or origin

concentric objects

T/F: A freehand sketch should show attention to proportion, clarity, and correct line widths


may be used to transfer measurements between the top and right side views

miter line

How many views should a sketch contain?

only the number of views needed to clearly and completely describe the object

in orthographic views, what do dashed lines represent?

features that would be hidden behind other surfaces

What are the three principle dimensions?

height, width, depth

surface that is perpendicular to one plane but inclined to adjacent planes


any principal view shows how many of the principal dimensions?

2 of 3

how many standard views are there in orthographic projection?


A number of views systematically arranged to give a complete and clear description of the shape and size of an object


the top, front, and bottom views align in this matter


surface that is tipped to all principle planes and does not appear true size in any standard view


a hole that appears as a circle in the top view is indicated in the front view with...

two hidden lines

orthographic views show...

the object all the way through as if it were transparent

most important lines to least important

visible > hidden > center

the rear, left-side, front, and right-side views align...


what projection is primarily used in Europe and Asia

first-angle projection

surface that is parallel to a plane of projection


view that shows the object in a usual, stable, or operating position

front view

depth dimensions in the ____ view and _____ view correspond

top, side

angled surface used on cylinders to make them easier to handle, assemble, and reduces sharp edges


A conical-shaped recess around a hole often used to receive a tapered screw head


A shaped depression cut along the axis of a cylinder or hub to receive a key, used to attach parts to a cylinder so they won't turn on it


T/F: There is a visible line where a place surface is tangent to a rounded surface


A view is completely or partially removed to another location on the drawing sheet

removed view

how are holes dimensioned?


A rounded exterior blend between surfaces


A hole that only goes a specified depth


A pattern form on a surface to provide for better gripping or more surface area for attachment


A shallow recess like a counterbore used to provide a good bearing surface for a fastener


What type of views may be added to show details at a larger scale?


A rounded interior blend between surfaces


When a curved surface is tangent to a plane surface, what is drawn?

no line is drawn

T/F: When showing a blind drilled hole (a hole ending within the feature) it is customary to show the slant at the end of the hole at 30°


A cylindrical recess around a hole, often used to receive the head of a bolt / screw below the surface of a part


T/F: Regular Multiview projections are sometimes awkward, confusing, or actually misleading such as rotated angles or multiple holes in a bolt pattern, and when drawn as a revolution do not appear in their true form in relation to the part


T/F: When a curved surface intersects a plane surface no line is drawn


A hole that has been drilled entirely through the part so that it can be seen from both sides

thru hole

A thin, dark, solid line terminated by arrowheads

dimension line

When a dimension is enclosed in parentheses, it indicates

reference dimension

V is a symbol of


T/F: Crossing extension lines is an acceptable practice


a thin, dark, solid line that extends from a point on the drawing to which a dimension refers

extension line

Why are objects dimensioned?

to give a complete size description

Do you give dimensions to hidden lines?


used to indicate that a surface is to be machined

finish mark

a variation from the exact dimension when dimensioning


dimensioning method that should be avoided because it permits the accumulation of error

chain dimensioning

Should you cross dimension lines?


˽ is a symbol of


Where are longer dimension lines located?

farthest from the object outline

A thin, solid line leading from a note or dimension and terminating in an arrowhead or a dot touching the part to which attention is directed


What is dimensioned by its radius?

arches, rounds, and fillets

T/F: fillet radii can be given in a general note


proper ratio for the length/width of an arrowhead


first angle projection

top view is placed under the front view, and the left side view is placed to the right (used in Europe)

New Product Development Cycle

1. Problem Identification 2. Ideation 3. Refinement/analysis 4. Implementation/documentation

Steps in the Design Process

1. Problem Identification 2. Concepts Ideas 3. Compromise solutions 4. Models Prototypes 5. Working Production Drawings

drawing that shows how all parts go together in the complete product

assembly drawing


computer aided engineering


computer aided manufacturing


American National Standards Institute

three dimensional geometry forming the background for application of the graphic language through which problems can be solved

descriptive geometry

broad term for scope of graphical language that is used to express technical idea

technical drawing

the projectors come together at the station point and represent objects as we see them

perspective projection

four standard types of projection

multiview, axonometric (isometric), oblique, perspective

what types of projection show objects pictorially

axonometric (isometric), oblique, perspective

two systems used to arrange views

third angle projection and first angle projection

shapes of letters described as part of drawing standards


U.S. customary units

inch-foot and yard measurements

International system of units

metric system - millimeters and kilometers

what you need to consider when laying out a drawing sheet

size/scale of object, sheet size, measurement system, space for notes & title block

solids which are bounded by the surfaces that contain them

three-dimensional figures

surfaces of three-dimensional figures

planar, single-curved, double-curved, warped

how are edges represented?

visible or hidden lines

an object of which has length, but no breadth


plane figure bound by four straight sides


represents a 3D object on a sheet of 2D paper by orienting the object so you can see its width, height, and depth in a single view

pictorial sketch

three common methods used to sketch pictorials are

isometric sketching, oblique sketching, perspective sketching

third angle projection

top view is placed over the front view, and right side view is placed next to front view

meanings of visible lines

intersection of two surfaces, edge view of surface, contour view of curved surface

short raised protrusion above the surface of a part


a flat or rounded tab protruding from a surface usually to provide a method for attachment


a flattened collar or rim around a cylindrical part to allow for attachment


a small groove cut around the diameter of a cylinder, often where it changes diameter


a hollow cylinder that is often used as a protective sleeve or guide or as a bearing


what happens when a plane intersects a contoured surface? tangent to contoured surface?

1. line drawn to represent edge 2. no line or a thin phantom line is drawn

A view may not need to be complete but may show only what is necessary for the clear description of the object

partial view

describe shape and position on engineering drawings

graphical entities

describe size and necessary manufacturing processes if the engineering drawing is to be a complete instruction for the shop technician

dimensions and notes

aspects of good dimensioning

technique, placement, choice, and tolerance of dimensions

The dimensioning of engineering structures involves two basic steps

size and location dimensions

the total amount that the feature on the actual part is allowed to vary from what is specified by the drawing or model dimension


don't make leaders...

parallel to nearby lines, through corner of view, across each other, horizontal or vertical

unnecessary dimensions

superfluous dimensions

Holes equally spaced about a common center may be dimensioned by giving the diameter of the circle of centers

bolt circle

used to specify dimensions of threads

local notes

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