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ANTR 350 Exam Study guide

Define the following terms: o Afferent o Efferent o Somatic o Visceral o Synapse o Nerve o Ganglion o Blood-brain barrier

o Afferent: "inflowing", indicates that nerve impulses are transmitted to the CNS o Efferent: "conducting outward", indicates that nerve impulses are transmitted from the CNS o Somatic: touch, pain, pressure, vibration, temperature, and proprioception (sensing the position or movement of joints and limbs) - and the special senses (taste, vision, hearing, balance, and smell). These functions are considered voluntary. o Visceral: transmit nerve impulses from blood vessels and viscera to the CNS. Primarily include temperature and stretch. These functions are said to be involuntary (no control over them and unconscious of them besides like being bloated after eating a lot) o Synapse: Intercellular junctions where two excitable cells come in contact to exchange information o Nerve: cable-like bundle of parallel axons. Typically looks like a macroscopic structure o Ganglion: group of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system o Blood-brain barrier: Controls substances entering the nervous tissue in the brain from the bloodstream. Protects the delicate brain from toxins but allows needed nutrients to pass through. Sometime this barrier is detrimental (some medications are not allowed to exit the capillaries & enter the nervous tissue in the brain)

Structures that compose the CNS

Brain and Spinal Cord

Structures that compose the peripheral nervous system (PNS)

-Nerves (cranial & spinal) and ganglia (NOT BASAL GANGLIA)

List the 3 general functions performed by the CNS and PNS

1) Collecting information 2) Processing and evaluating information 3) Responding to information

Describe the functions of the sensory nervous system and explain how visceral sensory is different from somatic sensory

-Responsible for receiving sensory information from receptors and transmitting this info to the CNS (for input) -Visceral sensory is considered involuntary. Somatic sensory is considered voluntary.

Describe the functions of the motor nervous system and explain how somatic motor and visceral motor differ from each other

-Responsible for transmitting motor impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands (for output) -Somatic motor is considered voluntary. Visceral (autonomic) motor is considered involuntary

Describe the role of the cell body, dendrites, and axon plays in receiving, integrating, and sending nerve impulses

-Cell Body: serves as the neuron's control center and is responsible for receiving, integrating, and sending nerve impulses -Dendrites: Conduct nerve impulses toward the cell body; they receive input and then transfer it to the cell body for processing -Axon: Transmits a nerve impulse away from the cell body toward another cell; transmits output information to other cells.

□ Describe the 3 functional classifications of neurons

-Sensory neurons (afferent neurons): transmit impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS. These neurons are specialized to detect changes in their environment called stimuli (form of touch, pressure, heat, light, or chemicals). Most sensory neurons are unipolar but some are bipolar. Cell bodies of unipolar sensory neurons are located outside the CNS & housed within structures called posterior root ganglia. -Motor neurons (efferent neurons): transmit nerve impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands. The muscle & gland cells that receive nerve impulses from motor neurons are called effectors because their stimulation produces a response or effect. The cell bodies of most motor neurons lie in the spinal cord, whereas the axons primarily travel in cranial or spinal nerves to muscles & glands. All motor neurons are multipolar. -Interneurons (association neurons): Lie entirely within the CNS and are multipolar structures. They receive nerve impulses from many other neurons & carry out the integrative function of the nervous system - they retrieve, process, and store info and "decide" how the body responds to stimuli. They facilitate communication between sensory and motor neurons.

Describe the function and location of the following glial (aka neuroglia) cells: astrocytes, ependymal cells, microglial cells, oligodendrocytes, and neurolemmocytes (aka Schwann cells) *****

-Astrocytes: helps form the blood-brain barrier, regulates tissue fluid composition, provides structural support and organization to CNS, replaces damaged neurons, assists with neuronal development, helps regulate synaptic transmission. Line fluid-filled spaces in the brain and spinal cord. -Ependymal Cells: Lines ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord, assists in production and circulation of CSF. Line the internal cavities of the brain & the central canal of the spinal cord. -Microglial Cells: Defends against pathogens, removes debris, phagocytizes wastes. Extend from the main cell body. -Oligodendrocytes: Myelinates & insulates CNS axons, allows faster nerve impulses conduction through the axon. Wrap around the axon. -Neurolemmocyte: Myelinates & insulates PNS axons, allows for faster nerve impulse conduction through the axon

Define: o Gyrus o Sulcus

o Gyrus: folds of the brain o Sulcus: shallow depressions between the folds

□ Specify the body cavities that contain the organs of the central nervous system

-Cranial: contained within the skull; location of the brain, cranial meninges, & CSF -Spinal: contained within the vertebral canal; location of spinal cord, spinal meninges, & CSF

□ List the layers of meninges from superficial to deep

Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, pia mater

□ Describe the flow of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) through the central nervous system ****

-Produced by the choroid plexus in the ventricles. Flows from the third ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct into the fourth ventricle. From the fourth ventricle, it flows into the subarachnoid space by passing through the paired lateral apertures or the single median aperture and into the central canal of the spinal cord. As it flows through the subarachnoid space, it removes waste products & provides buoyancy to support the brain. Excess CSF flows into the arachnoid villi, then drains into the dural venous sinuses. The greater the pressure on the CSF in the subarachnoid space ensures that CSF moves into the venous sinuses without permitting venous blood to enter the subarachnoid space.

□ Describe the function of the following structures: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, corpus callosum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala *****

-Frontal Lobe: higher intellectual functions; personality; voluntary motor control of skeletal muscle (tells arms to move when you want to pick something up -Parietal Lobe: Sensory (body wall); understanding speech & expressing thoughts & emotions -Temporal Lobe: primary auditory cortex; interpretation of olfactory sensations -Occipital Lobe: primary visual cortex -Corpus callosum: -Thalamus: Receives all sensory info coming into the body; processes & conveys info going into the cortex; "executive assistant" to the cortex; damage or disease produces sensory or motor or behavioral abnormalities. -Hypothalamus: Communicates with cerebrum & brainstem; responsible for changing the body to keep it in homeostasis; receives info about food intake, water levels, blood pressure, temperature, etc., and controls visceral function; controls the secretion of hormones; works to create bodily reaction to emotional stimuli -Cerebellum: communicates with cerebrum & brainstem; responsible for coordination of skeletal muscle contractions to produce smooth movements; involved in control of equilibrium with inner ear; damage or disease produces a condition known as ataxia-inability to coordinate voluntary motor control -Midbrain: Communicates with cerebellum; reflex center (visual & auditory); connects cerebrum to the rest of the brainstem -Pons: Transmits/relays impulses between cerebrum & cerebellum & brainstem; controls breathing; houses 4th ventricle -Medulla Oblongata: Continuous with spinal cord, stops at foremen magnum; controls vital autonomic functions; cardiac, vasomotor & respiratory centers (along with pons) -Basal Ganglia: communicates with cerebrum; responsible for allowing the appropriate amount & type of movement; delicately balanced activity between structures; damage or disease produces either too much movement (as in Huntington's disease) or too little movement (as in Parkinson's) -Hippocampus: involved in turning short-term memories into long-term memories; damage or disease produces anterograde amnesia, the inability to make new memories (most notably destroyed early on in alzheimer's disease) -Amygdala: Involved in attaching emotions to experiences & memories, particularly fear; damage or disease produces a loss of appropriate emotional responses to stimuli

Describe the location of blood pooling in an epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, and a subarachnoid hematoma

-Epidural Hematoma: Blood pool between the bone & the dura mater, presses on the brain (severe neurologic injury); treatment: drill hole in skull to relive pressure, tie of bleeding vessel -Subdural Hematoma: Bleeding between dura mater & arachnoid mater; often due to ruptured vein -Subarachnoid Hematoma: Hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space (blood in subarachnoid); less common but common in people who have hypertension

Specify the locations where the spinal cord begins and ends

-Begins at foramen magnum of the skull and extends down from the medulla oblongata. Ends at level of L1 & L2 vertebra (vertebral column is longer than the spinal cord in adults because the vertebral column grows for a longer period of time)

List the number of spinal nerves that connect to the spinal cord in each region of the spine

8 cervical; 12 thoracic; 5 lumbar; 5 sacral; 1 coccygeal

Describe how the cervical spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal and explain how they differ from all the rest of the spinal nerves (thoracic, lumbar, etc.)

-Cervical spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal SUPERIORLY to the same number vertebrae, although, the spinal nerve in C8 exits INFERIORLY TO C7 VERTEBRAE -Spinal nerves T1-Co1 exit INFERIORLY to the same number vertebrae -Spinal nerves below the L2 vertebra have very long dorsal/posterior & ventral/anterior roots which form the cauda equina

□ Match the following structures to the type(s) of neurons they contain (somatic motor, visceral motor, somatic sensory, visceral sensory): o Anterior root o Anterior horn o Lateral horn o Posterior horn o Posterior root o Posterior root ganglion o Spinal nerve o Anterior primary rami o Posterior primary rami ****

Efferent is motor, afferent is sensory o Anterior root: ONLY somatic motor fibers (neurons that control skeletal muscle) o Anterior horn: somatic motor cell bodies o Lateral horn: visceral motor cell bodies (sympathetic division of autonomic-preganglionic) o Posterior horn: just that connects to root o Posterior root: ONLY sensory fibers for somatic and visceral o Posterior root ganglion: cell bodies for sensory fibers (visceral & somatic sensory) o Spinal nerve: (everything comes together here!!) o Anterior primary rami: somatic motor, somatic sensory, visceral sensory, and visceral motor o Posterior primary rami: somatic motor, somatic sensory, visceral sensory, and visceral motor

□ List the structures innervated by posterior primary rami versus anterior primary rami ******

-Posterior ramus: deep muscles of the back (erector spinae & transversospinalis) to carry sensory info (basically everything) -Anterior ramus: anterior and lateral portions of the trunk, the upper limbs, and lower limbs

□ Define the following terms: o Dermatome & describe locations of T4, 10, & L1 o Myotome: o Nerve plexus: o Reflex arc: o Innervation: ******

o Dermatome & describe locations of T4, 10, & L1 -strip of skin around body controlled by one nerve (lecture 2) -T4: nipple, T10: umbilicus, T12/L1: groin o Myotome: group of muscles innervated by the ventral roots of a given spinal cord segment o Nerve plexus: network of interweaving anterior rami of spinal nerves. Nerve plexuses split into multiple "named" nerves that innervate various body structures. o Reflex arc: neural "wiring" of a single reflex. Always begins at a receptor in the PNS, communicates with the CNS, and ends at a peripheral receptor, such as a muscle or gland. (Nerve pathway composed of neurons that control rapid, subconscious, preprogrammed responses to a stimulus) o Innervation: supply of axons functionally connected with "part"

□ Specify the location of a somatic motor (efferent) neuron's cell body, the type of tissue it innervates, and explain the direction of its impulses in relation to the central nervous system

-anterior horns, skeletal muscles (skin, bones, etc), away from CNS

□ Specify the location of a somatic sensory (afferent) neuron's cell body, the type(s) of tissue it innervates, and explain the direction of its impulses in relation to the central nervous system

-posterior root ganglion, internal organs, toward the CNS

□ Clinical correlate: Describe what layers would be pierced by an epidural block compared to a lumbar puncture what spaces the needle would stop in for each of these procedures ******

-Epidural: does not pass through dura mater, only through fat space. -Spinal block: needle goes into subarachnoid space

□ List the names of the 12 cranial nerves and be able to match their name to the Roman numeral associated with each nerve.

I Olfactory II Optic III Oculomotor IV Trochlear V Trigeminal VI Abducens VII Facial VIII Vestibulocochlear IX Glossopharyngeal X Vagus XI Accessory XII hypoglossal

□ Describe the basic function of each of the 12 cranial nerves. ***

-I (olfactory) -Sensory: Smell -II (optic) -Sensory: Vision -III (Oculomotor) -Motor: Ciliary Muscles, sphincter pupillae, all extrinsic muscles of eye expect those listed for CN IV & VI -IV (trochlear) -Motor: Superior oblique muscle of eye -V (trigeminal) -Sensory: face; oral, nasal, and sinus mucosa; teeth; anterior two thirds of tongue -Motor: muslces of mastication + 4 other muscles -VI (abducens) -Motor: lateral rectus muscle of eye -VII (facial) * -Motor: muscles of facial expression + 3 other muscles -VIII (Vestibulocochlear) -Vestibular sensory: equilibrium, motion -Cochlear sensory: hearing -IX (glossopharyngeal) * -motor: stylopharyngeus, parotid gland -X (vagus) -Motor: palate, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, heart, GI tract to left colic flexure -Sensory: pharynx, larynx; reflex sensory from tracheobronchial tree, lungs, heart, GI tract to left colic flexure -XI (Accessory) -Motor: sternocleidomastoid and trapezius -XII (hypoglossal) -Motor: all intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of tongue

□ Match the cranial nerve to the opening of the skull it travels through ****

-Olfactory nerves (I) Cribriform plate -Optic nerve (II) optic canal -Oculomotor nerve (III) Superior orbital fissure -Trochlear nerve (IV) Superior orbital fissure -Trigeminal Nerve (V) Superior orbital fissure (V1), Foramen Rotundum (V2), Foramen Ovale (V3) -Abducens nerve (VI) Superior orbital fissure -Facial Nerve (VII) Internal Acoustic meatus -Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) Internal Acoustic meatus -Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Jugular Foramen -Vagus Nerve (X) Jugular Foramen -Spinal Accessory Nerve (XI) Juglar Foramen -Hypoglossal Nerve (XII) Hypoglossal foramen

□ List the nerves that carry special senses (smell, taste, vision, hearing/balance) ****

Smell: olfactory nerve (I) -Taste: facial (VII) (anterior 2/3 of tongue) & glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) (posterior 1/3 of tongue) -Vision: optic nerve (II) & -Hearing/balance: vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

□ List the 3 divisions of the Trigeminal nerve (CNV) and describe the function of each division. ****

-V1 (opthalmic): carries sensory info from the area indicated (lecture 3), as well as the cranial dura -V2 (maxillary): carries sensory info from the area indicated (lecture 3), as well as the upper teeth & cranial dura -V3 (Mandibular): carries sensory info from the area indicated (lecture 3), as well as lower teeth, anterior 2/3 of the tongue (touch sensation only), & the cranial dura. Also carries motor info controlling the muscles of mastication

□ Describe what Bell's Palsy is and identify the nerve involved

-Unilateral paralysis of the muscles of facial expression. Paralysis of facial nerve (CN VII). 50% of patients experience a complete, spontaneous recovery. But some do not recover at all.

□ Describe the functions of the autonomic nervous system and identify what types of tissue it innervates

-smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glands -little or no conscious control/awareness -Governed by hypothalamus -Sympathetic -executes the "fight or flight" (prepares body to face crisis) -blood flow decreases -Parasympathetic -executes the "rest & digest" (takes over when relaxed) -blood flow increases

□ Define the following terms in the ANS: o Preganglionic o Ganglion o Autonomic plexus o Autonomic reflex ****

o Preganglionic: proximal to the ganglion, myelinated axon arising from a cell body in the CNS o Postganglionic: unmyelinated axons o Ganglion: Group of nerve cell bodies in the PNS o Autonomic plexus: Collections of sympathetic postganglionic axons & parasympathetic preganglionic axons as well as some visceral sensory axons o Autonomic reflex: Consist of smooth muscle contractions, cardiac muscle contractions, or secretion by glands that are mediated by autonomic reflex arcs in response to a specific stimulus

□ Describe the functions of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

Rest and Digest

□ Specify the locations of preganglionic parasympathetic visceral motor neuron cell bodies

-very long. Housed in the brainstem or lateral gray matter of S2-S4

□ Specify the location of postganglionic parasympathetic visceral motor neuron cell bodies

-very short. Close to the effector organ or embedded in it (very short).

□ List the 4 cranial nerves that carry parasympathetic visceral motor fibers and match it to the structure(s) it provides parasympathetic innervation to ****

-CN III (oculomotor): Ciliary muscles to control lens for accommodation; sphincter pupillae muscles of eye to constrict pupil -CN VII (facial nerve): Lacrimal glands; glands of nasal cavity, palate, oral cavity, submandibular & sublingual salivary glands -CN IX (glossopharyngeal nerve): Parotid salivary glands -CN X (vagus nerve): Thoracic viscera & most abdominal viscera

□ Specify the location of preganglionic sympathetic visceral motor cell bodies

-lateral horns in T1-L2

□ Specify whether the fibers composing the white rami communicants and grey rami communicants are

-Preganglionic are (usually) going to be white-Postganglionic is going to be grey (for only pathway #1 because it is the only one that uses grey rami)

□ Specify whether the fibers composing sympathetic splanchnic nerves are preganglionic or postganglionic


□ Specify the locations of postganglionic sympathetic visceral motor cell bodies ******

-these cell bodies have long nerve fibers that extend to the end target organ -Pathway 1: sympathetic chain ganglion -Pathway 2: Sympathetic chain ganglion (specifically superior cervical chain ganglion) -Pathway 3: Prevertebral ganglion -Pathway 4: adrenal medulla

□ Describe the 4 main sympathetic pathways (spinal nerve, postganglionic sympathetic nerve, splanchnic nerve, and adrenal medulla pathways) and match each pathway to the structure(s) they innervate (See Figure 18.8 Types of Sympathetic Pathways) ****

Pathway 1: neuron cell body of pre ganglionic is in lateral horn that extends to ventral root and joins the spinal nerve. Gets on white ramus, synapses, gets off at grey ramus and then goes to the target organ Pathway 2: Preganglionic cell body is in lateral horn, joins ventral root, joins spinal nerve, gets on white ramus, synapses in sympathetic ganglion chain, jumps off at postganglionic nerve (cardiac nerve) Pathway 3: preganglionic cell body is in lateral horn, join ventral root, joints spinal nerve, gets on white ramus, ...??? Goes splanchnic! Pathway 4: Preganglionic cell body is in lateral horn, fibers extend out the ventral root to the spinal nerve, get on white ramus, pass through prevertebral ganglion and synapses at the adrenal medulla. Goes splanchnic!

□ Describe the effects of dual innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) on the following structures: heart, gastrointestinal tract, pupil diameter of eye

-Heart: parasympathetic slows down heart rate, sympathetic speeds up heart rate. Same heart muscle effector cells receive this opposing stimulation -GI tract: parasympathetic increases smooth muscle motility, increases blood flow to GI tract, increases gastric juice secretions, dilates smooth muscle of GI sphincters. Sympathetic inhibits smooth muscle motility, constricts blood vessels, constricts GI sphincters. BASICALLY, PARASYMPATHEIC PROMOTES DIGESTION & ABSORPTION OF FOOD AND SYMPATHETIC INHIBITS DIGESTION & ABSORPTION OF FOOD. -Pupil Diameter: parasympathetic causes pupil constriction (smaller) and sympathetic causes pupil dilation (bigger)

□ List the neurotransmitters used in the autonomic nervous system and explain how beta blockers would affect these neurotransmitters

-beta blockers can block the receptors for the neurotransmitters that are found on heart and other structures like lungs, liver, etc. Do not affect parasympathetic, only sympathetic. & only internal stuff.

□ Identify the location of the cell bodies of visceral sensory neurons***

-Internal neurons

□ Describe how visceral sensory neurons convey information back to the central nervous system***


□ Describe the difference between somatic pain, visceral pain, and referred pain***

-Somatic Pain: -Visceral Pain: -Referred Pain: feel pain in an area but it's not actually from that area

□ Identify the 3 tunics of the eye and describe the function ***

-Fibrous Tunic: external layer of eye wall, composed of the anterior cornea and posterior sclera. Cornea exhibits a convex shape and refracts light rays. The sclera provides for eye shape and protects the internal components. -Vascular Tunic: middle layer of the eye wall, composed of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris. The choroid supplies nutrients & oxygen to the retina & inner layer. The ciliary muscles alter the shape of the lens. And the ciliary body secretes a fluid called aqueous humor. The iris controls pupil size and the amount of light entering the eye. -Retina: internal layer of the eye wall. It is composed of the pigmented layer and inner neural layer. The pigmented layer provides vitamin A for photoreceptor cells and transports all nutrients & oxygen to the photoreceptors & removes waste from them. The neural layer houses the photoreceptors and is responsible for receiving light rays & converts them into nerve impulses that are transmitted to the brain.

□ Describe how the lens changes shape in order to see close objects

-To see distant objects, the ciliary muscles within the body relax which causes the lens to flatten. To see close objects, the ciliary muscles contract and causes the lens to thicken (more spherical).

□ Describe how aqueous humor normally circulates through the eye (See Figure 19.16 Aqueous Humor: Secretion and Reabsorption)****

1) Aqueous humor is secreted by the ciliary processes into the posterior chamber 2) Aqueous humor moves from the posterior chamber, through the pupil, to the anterior chamber 3) Excess aqueous humor is resorbed via the scleral venous sinus

□ Match the cranial nerves (CNIII, CNIV, and CNVI) to the muscle(s) they innervate***

-CN III (oculomotor nerve) -Medial rectus -Superior & inferior rectus -Inferior oblique -CN VI (abducens nerve) -lateral rectus -CN IV (trochlear nerve) -superior oblique

□ Match the muscle(s) to the following actions of the eye (See Table 11.2 Extrinsic Eye Muscles): ***

o Adduction: medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus o Abduction: lateral rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique o Depression: inferior rectus, superior oblique o Elevation: superior rectus, inferior oblique

□ Define the following terms: endocrine gland, hormones

-Endocrine Gland: ductless organs that secrete their molecular products directly into the bloodstream -Hormones: molecules that have an effect on specific organs

□ Compare the endocrine system to the nervous system in terms of the following: communication method, target stimulated, response time, range of effect, and duration of effect***

Communication Method -Nervous System: A nerve signal cause neurotransmitter release from a neuron into a synaptic cleft -Endocrine System: Secretes hormones into blood; hormones transported within the blood are distributed to target cells throughout body Target of Stimulation -Nervous System: Other neurons, muscle cells, and gland cells -Endocrine System: Any cell in the body with a receptor for the hormone Response time -Nervous System: Rapid reaction time -Endocrine System: Relatively slow reaction time Range of Effect -Nervous System: Typically, has localized, specific effects in the body -Endocrine System: Typically has widespread effects throughout the body Duration of effect -Nervous System: Short term -Endocrine System: long lasting

Functions?***** o Pituitary gland o Pineal gland o Thyroid gland o Parathyroid o Adrenal glands o Thymus o Pancreas o Testes

o Pituitary gland: takes directions from the hypothalamus & controls the other endocrine parts o Pineal gland: secretes melatonin which coordinates sleep/wake cycles o Thyroid gland: regulates body growth and metabolism o Parathyroid: helps regulate calcium levels in the blood o Adrenal glands: helps regulate metabolism & secretes adrenal o Thymus: immune response o Pancreas: glucose metabolism, insulin o Testes: produce male sex hormones

□ List the organs that contain endocrine cells and give their basic function in relation to the endocrine system****

-Kidney: Calcitriol promotes calcium absorption in the small intestine. Erythropoietin stimulates erythrocyte production & maturation -Heart: Atriopeptin increases sodium & water loss in urine, resulting in decreased blood pressure & volume -GI Tract: Controls overall secretory activity & motility in GI tract -Ovaries: Estrogen stimulates development of female reproductive organs, follicle maturation; regulates menstrual cycle; stimulates growth of mammary glands. Progesterone regulates menstrual cycle; stimulates growth of uterine lining; stimulates growth of mammary glands. Inhibin inhibits secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone -Testes: Androgens stimulate male reproductive organ development, production of sperm. Inhibin inhibits secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone.

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