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1. Compare and contrast three different job analysis methods by their advantages and disadvantages.

1. Compare and contrast three different job analysis methods by their advantages and disadvantages.

Direct observation is a method of job analysis that involves undeviating surveillance of incumbents executing their duties. It helps the job analyst to obtain firsthand information regarding the job in question. On the contrary, direct observation method of job analysis may interfere with the normal work behavior of the employee due to the presence of an onlooker.

Interview method of job analysis involves gathering various information from employees by probing the employee to give a description of the tasks and the duties being major strength of this method of job analysis is that it provides information regarding non observable tasks that direct observation cannot explain. Ommission or overstatement of tasks and duties is a major weakness of the interview method of job analysis.

Questionnaire method of job analysis involves creating an assessment device that is used in collecting information from employees. The importance of this approach is that large data may be obtained from the employees without much effort. The problem with this method of analysis is that it assumes that the employees will candidly give the information without any prejudice but that in reality is impossible.

2. Compare and contrast workload-driven forecasting and staffing efficiency-driven prediction.

Workload driven forecasting uses old data on the average number of employs usually made per recruiter or an average number of recruits processed by a recruiter over a given period say a week, a month or even a year. For example, an organization’s average recruiter (one recruiter) can process about 100 applicants during a recruiting drive, the organization will need 20 recruiters to process 2000 applicants. The company can this method to determine the number of employees required to complete a given task. The organization can use similar approach the number of additional resources required or production costs required.

Self-efficiency driven forecasting is another method of forecasting how many recruiters are needed. Staffing efficiency refers to the total cost that is associated with the compensation of the newly hired employees that is, the total starting payment to all new employees. For example, if a firm's internal and external staffing costs were $100,000, and 10 people were hired, each with a starting base salary of $60,000, the firm's staffing efficiency would be 100,000/600,000 or 16.67 percent. Lower percentage reflects greater staffing efficiency. The staffing efficiency approach is financially and efficiency driven rather than workload driven, therefore, it can be a useful metric for evaluating how well company’s staffing plans are working. The method as well be used to set a budget for an upcoming hiring effort.

3. List and describe the five steps in the workforce planning process.

The first step in workforce planning is clearly identifying the business objectives to be achieved. Clearly, state what is going to be accomplished at the end of the workforce. Secondly, adopting the firm’s talent philosophy and strategically making coherent staffing decisions. The company should aim at getting the right workforce according to the job description as well as according to the person specifications. Thirdly, the firm should conduct an appropriate job analysis. This may be done through job analysis methods such as through interviews, questionnaires and direct observation. Fourthly, in planning the workforce, the firm should develop and implement action plans. Whatever has been planned should be put into action. Lastly, the company should monitor, evaluate and revise the forecasts and action plans. The firm should do a follow-up and rectify the action plans for an effective workforce planning.

4. What are talent inventories and replacement charts, and how are they used in forecasting labor supply?

Talent inventories refer to a set of computerized records that give a summary of each employee’s skills, competencies, and qualifications. Besides, talent inventories may also include the employee’s education background as well as their previous experiences regarding the job in question. Replacement charts are designed ways of tracing the possible replacements for certain positions. It visually illustrates each of the possible alternatives for a job and recaps their high points, contemporary performance, promotion promptness and development needs.

Both talent inventory and replacement charts are used in forecasting the labor supply because they ensure that the right talent and the veracious successors are available when needed.

5. What is meant by employee profiling in sourcing?

Employee profiling is an assessment methodology in which a set of high performing profile employees is identified, and they are given the opportunity to take an assessment designed to measure a variety of essential characteristics that are related to job performance. The result of the best performers is used to create a standard score profile that defines a high performing employee. The score patterns for the applicants for the position for which the benchmark has been set up are then compared to benchmark profile during the hiring process. Those who most closely match the ideal profile are viewed as having the best chance of success and are recommended for hire to clone high performers.

6. What is employee profiling? How can it be utilized to create a sourcing plan?

Employee profiling identifies what the company's employees who have succeeded like to do, how they conduct themselves as well as how people like them can be recruited in the organization. In most cases, the firm uses focus group or survey whereby top performers in the organization are asked about themselves, where they like to go, what media they use, what organizations they belong to, what events they attend, and how it's easiest for them to be reached. Employee profiling can be used while sourcing for the best candidate because by just looking at your best performers and develop a profile hat can be used to make sure you hire persons who look just like they do.

7. Explain in brief, concerning any nontraditional applicant pool, how an organization can attempt to recruit such candidates effectively.

Temporary staffing agencies are the most efficient way in which people with disabilities can be sourced because they focus on the individual's job skills, abilities and the interests of all job seekers. Staffing services use temporary job assignments, job assessment services, and skills training so as to help individuals with or without disabilities to find appropriate employment opportunities. Therefore, the staffing services provide job seekers with a chance to build a work history, to gain experience from different types of jobs as well as increasing their employment marketability and earning potential. Hiring people with disabilities is an unconventional candidate tool that ensures that individuals with disabilities are given equal opportunities for other people. The organization can effectively recruit the disabled candidates by linking up with a disability agency.

8. Explain the role of geographic targeting in the sourcing process.

Geographic targeting refers to the process where an organization source recruits based on the geographical locations they live. In many organizations, lower-position levels are filled from the locality (local labor market), and the geographic boundaries for sourcing recruits tend to widen as the organizational position moves up the hierarchy.

Geographic targeting can be done by focusing on the local labor market, focusing on labor markets in locations similar to the organization's location regarding city size, cost of living, etc., or targeting individuals likely to find the organization's location attractive. Individuals tend to have preferences for communities with specific characteristics and to be more willing to relocate to areas with these desired characteristics. Identifying communities similar to an organization's location on characteristics including population density, recreational and cultural opportunities, cost of living, and climate and targeting recruiting efforts in these areas may generate promising sourcing strategies.

9. Define "job description" and "person specification" and describe how they are used

Person specification refers to a set of skills that a job candidate must have to complete the tasks of a position offered by a company. A person specification can outline the educational requirements, training experience as well as more personal qualifications that a candidate must possess. A job description is a detailed account of the role including all the responsibilities, objectives and requirements. Job description and person specification are used in job analysis in determining the necessity, worth, and scope of a particular job. They define a position entirely and guide both the employer and employee on how to go about the entire process of recruitment and selection.

10. What is global sourcing? Explain in brief the primary challenge of global sourcing.

Global sourcing refers to recruiting employees globally from all over the world. Global sourcing demands adequate planning, developing, implementing and evaluating staffing initiatives on a worldwide basis. Global workforce offers a substantial range of challenges as compared to sourcing workforce locally. Implementing recruiting and staffing policies across a range of countries, each with its own cultural, legal, economic, and political characteristics is much more intricate.

One of the primary challenges of sourcing and managing a global workforce is the need to strike a balance between two competing objectives; integration refers to the coordination of a single global staffing that gives the organization adequate control over its local operations. Another major challenge when implementing the global sourcing strategy are the hidden costs that are associated with the level of benefits that the organization expected. For example, increase in production cost due to supplies outside the domestic market. Therefore, it is critical for any organization to do a full evaluation of global outsourcing strategy before its implementation.

11. What is signaling and what role does it play during recruiting?

Signaling refers to party conveying personal information to another recruiting, employees send their signals to the recruiter about their capability to undertake a task. They send their qualifications and experiences which are used by the recruiter to determine the best candidate for a given position. signaling enables the employer in differentiating the high ability workers from low ability workers.

12. What are recruiter profiles and how are they used in staffing?

Recruiter profiles refer to the competency and skillfulness of the recruiting company in regard to the job in question. A good recruiting company should have an updated company profile of the services they offer and the open job opportunities available. This will attract more talent from the applicants. Whether a recruiter is external or internal to the organization, understanding recruiter's characteristics are most likely to enhance effectiveness in the recruiting processes. For the organization to identify the suitable person for a given position, it should gather information and analyze it so as to create a reviewer profile of the individual recruiters who have been most effective in meeting staffing objectives in the past.

13 What is an organization's employer image and why is it relevant to staffing?

Employer’s image determines the ability to attract and retain the best talent in the dynamic market. The perceptions the employees have regarding a certain company vastly determines the talent quality of a company. Recruiting agencies with clear defined brand name are likely to attract high quality talent as compared to agencies with an undefined brand image. Starting from recruitment, the organizations employer image extends its effect to the training and development of the talent. A clear defined employer brand can significantly improve application rates and put your company in the enviable position of having a wide pool of talent to choose from.

14 Compare and contrast self-selection, vaccination and commitment to choice as functions of realistic job previews. Be sure to explain each prior to your compare and contrast.

Realistic job previews involve the presentation of both positive and potentially negative information to job candidates. Rather than trying to sell them and the job, realistic job previews strive to present an authentic and truthful picture.

Self-selection; involves giving applicants a more balanced picture of the job and organization allows them to opt out of the application process if the opportunity is not a good match for them.

Vaccination; this is where employees expectations are jabbed and allow them to develop surviving mechanisms to deal with the hostile or unanticipated aspects of the position. When encountering these aspects on the job, the employee is prepared for them and is less negatively affected by them

A commitment to the choice; if employees are informed about the negative aspects of the job before they accept them they cannot claim that they were not informed about them. Thus, they maybe more committed to the choice they have made that is they may be more inclined to stay in their positions because they realize they willingly accepted the job despite knowing it realities.

15. How should a recruiter divulge information regarding the job to the applicant with respect to timing?

An organization needs to make an informed decision on who to offer an employment opportunity and who not to give the opportunity. Therefore, it is very important to focus on all aspects of the job and the organization before communicating the information to the applicants. The content of recruiting messages is dynamic. Thus the organization should focus on broader issues such as job title, general nature of the job, job duties and responsibilities and the job's location. Effective communication is very essential when communicating with potential recruit thus allowing each party to quickly and cost-effectively assess the overall likelihood of a fit between the applicant's competencies, values, and experiences and the organization's particular job openings. Finally, job applicants may also do some research so as they can learn about the organization's values and culture.

A good interviewer will be an active listener and use both verbal and nonverbal cues to encourage the applicant divulge pertinent information. On verbal skills include smiling, nodding or leaning forward in your chair. If additional information is needed, your voice should be lighter and the tone interested or quizzical. Additionally, the recruiter can use positive verbal cues such as “oh” to motivate the applicant to talk about sensitive information. A recruiting source analysis effectiveness prefers external to internal recruiters when recruiters when the level of the position is relatively high and the time to fill the position is necessary. When cost is considered, that is low cost-per-hire is the key internal recruiting is the most appropriate method to use. Analyzing this types of information will help the organization specify who should hire as well as the job specifications for the recruiter for each position.

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